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li lllfltli I 1 


Presented to the 
LiBRARY of the 




Bell's Illustrated Classics 

Edited by E. C. MARCHANT, M.A. 

Lttte Classical ilaster at St. Paurs School 












12)2-' 1^3 




I.\ itiepariiig thi>. little Intuk I liave u.sed chiefly 
the editions of Forbiger. Conington, and Benoist. 
and, to a smaller extent, those of Papillon. .Sidgwick, 
and Calvert. 

References I have cut down tu the sniallest 
possible nuinber. and ha^e taken few from any 
source except Vergil. 



I. Life of \'oi-gil I 

II. Woiks 3 

III. Vergirs Rjink as a Poet 6 

IV, Tl>c Metre of the Aeneicl .... 9 
V. Translatioiis ...... 11 

Tkxx 15 

NoTES . . . . ...... 65 




peian wrtll-paintings and an engiaved gem) Frontispiece 

CiRCE. (From a Pompeian wall-painting and bas- 

relier . . . . . . . . . i6 

Father Tiber. 'From a Colossal figure in the Louvre^ 1 7 

Faun. From a statue in the Capitoline Museuni. 

Rome) 18 

Ro.MAN B.\NQUET. (From tho Yatican Vergil and Pom- 

peian wall-painting''' ...... 23 

Markixg out Boundaries with X Plduoh. (From a 

coin) . . . ... ... 24 

Youths Kacisg. (From a vase-painting) ... 25 

Statue OF JaxuS; From a coin of • Marcus Aurelins '" 26 

Sceptres .\ND Diadems. (From Greek vai-e-paintings) . 29 

HoRsE A.ND Trappixgs. From ^eulpture and wall- 

paintings" . . . , . . . -31 

Priest ok Bellona. witk Battle-axf.s and Militarv 

Clo.\k. (From a Roman bas-relief) . • • 34 
A FuRV. (From a bas-relief on a sari-ophagus) . . 36 


Bacchaxai.s. (From a vaso-painting) . 

HfNTiNo Si^ENK. (From a lias-rdiof nn a sarcopliagii^i' 

TiiE Tioin.K <ir .Ianus. (Froni a cuin in tlie Brilisl 
Miiscuni) . ...... 

Map to Ii.i.ustrate Catalooue of Itai.ian Towns (From a vaso-painting^ 

Centaurs. (From a statue in tlu- Caj)itoline MustMun 
Ronic, and ^asc-jiaintings) .... 

Death of HippoiATrs. From a bas-relief on a sare<> 

FiGHT wiTii Amazons. (From a vase-painting) 

A QuivKR, (Froin a gem) ..... 







I, Life of Vergil. 

PuBLius Vergilius Maro was born on October 15, 
B.c. 70, during the consulship of Pompey and Crassus. 
His birthplace was Andes— the modern Pietola — a village 
near Mantua, in Cisalpine Gaul. Of his parents little is 
known. His father appears to have possessed a small 
estate, and is said to have made money by buying land 
cheap— probably at the tinie of the Sulhui proscrij^tions 
— and by bee-keeping. Of his mother we only know that 
her name was Maia. His father was not blind to the 
advantages of education, and sent his son to school at 
Cremona, where he assumed the toga virilis at the age 
of iifteen. Subsequently he studied at Mediohinum 
(Milan), and at Rome, where Syron an Epicurean was 
his master in philosophy. After finishing his education 
Vergil seems to have retired to his farm, his health not 
permitting him to aspire to fortune by a military or 
oratorical career. Soon after he niade the acquaintance 
of Asinius Pollio, who was legatus in his province, and in 
41 B.c. found this friendship of great value. Octavianus 
— afterwards known as Augustus — and Marcus Antonius 
had defeated the remnants of the Republican party 
under Brutus and Cassius at Philippi, B.c. 42. To reward 


their victorious troops large grants of land ■were made 
to the legionaries, and Mantua and Cremona suffered 
especially. Vergil lost his land, but, thanks to the 
intercession of Pollio and other friends, succeeded in 
obtaining its restitution from Octavianus. One of the 
friends who aided Vergil in this matter was one whoso 
name will always be remembered with that of the poet — 
Maecenas, an Etruscan knight, a trusted friend of 
Augustus, a leading statesman, and, above all, a patron 
of learning. The poet frequently visited Maecenas in 
Rome, and it was at his suggestion that he wrote the 
Georgics. It was to Vergil that Horace owed his intro- 
duction to Maecenas, and we know that the two poets 
and some friends went a journey together. Augustus 
himself was on friendly terms with Vergil, and it is said 
to have been the former's wish that thc poet should turn 
to more ambitious work. The result of VergiFs obedience 
to the ruler of Rome was the great national epic, the 
Aeneid, which its aulhor did not live to fiiiish entirely. 
Ten years hc spcnt over the work, and intcnded B.c. ig 
to spend three more years in Grcece and Asia Minor in 
putting the final iDolish to the pocm. However, in Athens 
he met Augustus, who was returning from Samos, and 
accompanied him back to Italy. Hc was taken ill on the 
way at Megara, and died a few days after reaching Italian 
soil, at Brundisium, September 20, B.c. 19, in his fifty- 
first year. He was buried by the road from Neapolis 
(Naples) to Puteoli, where a tomb, said to be his, is still 
pointed out. 

His fathcr and two brothers died before Vergil, but liis 
mother had marriod again, and had a son, who inherited 
half of his famous haIf-brother's property. 

Except in health Vergil was prosperous, and was 
unspoiled by prosperity. preserving to the cnd his siraple 


countiy habits and manners. He was generous and 
affable to all, and very naodest with regard to his own 
fame, disliking much the enthusiasm caused by his 
appearance in public. He occasionally recited in public, 
and had an excellent delivery, 

II. Works. 

Vergirs works fall naturally into four divisions : (i) 
youthful poenis ; (2) the Pastorals ; (3) the Georgics; 
(4) the Aeneid. Of these (4) will be considered in the 
next section. 

(i) A collection of minor poems, most of which are 
of little interest, attributed — in many cases obviously 
wrongly— to Vergil. 

One piece, which is probably genuine, describes the 
pleasure with which the youth says farewell to rhetoric, 
grammar, and the like. 

Another is the Culex, 'The Gnat,' an obscure prosaic 
poem of over 400 lines, certainly no work of VergiFs. 
Two shorter poems, the Moretum, a descrijjtion of a 
farmer's daily work, and the Copa, a tavern-keeper's 
invitation to guests to enter his house, have more claim 
to be considered genuine. 

Fourteen other short ijieces, known as Catalecta, are of 
little interest or value. 

(2) The ' Pastorals ' are ten poems in hexameter verse, 
called also 'Bucolics ' (Herdsmen's songs), and 'Eclogues' 
(selections '. They purport to describe the life, the songs, 
the love, and the strife of shepherds, but are as unreal as 
the ' swains ' and ' nymphs ' of Pope and his school. To 
a great extent they are borrowed from the Greek of 
Theocritus, whose Idylls deal, but in a much fresher and 
more natural manner, with similar topics. 
B 2 


Vergil is perfectly careless in these poeins about natural 
scenery ; he mixes the features of Sicily (depicted with 
skill by Theocritus) with those of the neighbourhood of 
Mantua. He is careless, too, of the fitness of his charac- 
ters, and his shepherds are often himself and his friends 
in disguise. 

In one Eclogue tho drunken Silonus discourses on 
Natural Philosophy; in another, Vergil apjiears as dis- 
possessed of his fanu by the soldiers, and reinstated by 

Thc fourth Eclogue, inscribed toPollio, is veryfamous, 
and has given rise to much discussion. It deals with the 
birth of a child who shall restore the Golden Age, and 
many in consequence looked upon it as a proijhecy of 
the birth of the Messiah, while Vergil was considered 
as, consciously or unconsciously, niore Christian than 

(3) The 'Georgics' are four poenis written in imitation 
of Hesiod's ' Works and Days,' a poem which, after de- 
scribing the five ages of the worhl, directs the farmer as 
to the works .suitable to certain seasons. and tells him 
which days are luckj', Avhich unlucky. The Roman iioem 
is addressed to Maecenas, and Caesar Augustus is in- 
vokod among other gods. 

The first book deals with corn. the second with vines 
and fruit-trees, the third with cattlo, and the fourth 
with bees. 

The Georgics are usually considered VergiTs most com- 
plete work, and no doubt they are elaborated with the 
utmost care. The subject was one which interested 
Vergil as a practical man ; as a patriot too, he was a 
convinced beliovor in agriculture as producing 'Roman 
yeomcn,' who wouhl win Ronie's! glory, and form a back- 
bone for the empire ; and it is said it was hoped that 


Vergil's verse would Avin to the plougli the veterans of 
the civil wars, who had obtained allotments of public 

It is worth notice that one of the finest passages of 
the poenis is one which, artistically, is faulty, i.e. the 
episode of Orpheus aud Eurydice in the fourth book. 

Hie Aeneid. 

The Aeneid is the great epic of Rome, It was founded 
on the two epics of Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey, 
and is at once a sequel to the former and a companion 
to the latter. The poem desci-ibes the wanderings of 
Aeneas, from whom Rome sprang, and conducts him 
from Troy to his final settlement in Italy. The whole 
tale shortly is as follows. 

Paris, son of Priam, king of Troy, was a shepherd 
feeding his flocks on Mount Ida. To him came the 
goddesses, Venus, Juno, Minerva (we use the Latin 
names) to decide who was the fairest. Paris gave his 
decision in favour of Venus, who bribed him by the 
otfer of — 

'The fairest and most loving bride in Greece.' 

This bride was Helen, wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta, 
who fled with Paris to Troy. The Greeks fitted out 
a large expedition under the command of Agamemnon, 
brother of Menelaus, and for ten years Ti-oy was besieged. 
Hector on the Trojan side, Achilles, Ajax, Ulysses, 
Diomedes, &c. on the Grecian,were the chief combatants, 
but the city did not fall until there was devised the 
stratagem of the wooden horse, described in Aeneid ii. 

Aeneas, of the princely House of Troy, escaped with 
his father, son, and household gods, and built a fleet; 


but after many wanclerings was driven to the shore of 
Carthage, where Dido the Qiieen received the exiles 
kindly. Here ends the first book. The second and third 
do not advance the action of the story, for they contain 
Aeneas's account of the fall of Troy, and his sufterings and 
wanderings before reaching Carthage. The following nine 
books tell of Aeneas's love for and desertion of Dido, his 
arrival in Italy, his conflicts with the natives, and finally 
the death of Turnus his most dangerous rival. After 
this it is obvious that there woukl have been little left 
to tell, and Yergil has not chosen to take us further than 
the settlement of his hero in Italy. 

The Aeneid was never finished. Yergil is said to have 
begged Varius, who with Tucca, was the poefs executor, 
to burn the poeni if anything befell the author. Varius 
refused, and the poefs entreaty to be allowed to burn 
the work before he died was likewise refused, and he 
was obliged to be content with binding his executors to 
publish nothing which he had not put forth. But his 
request was set aside after his death, at Augustus' wish, 
and the Aeneid was given to the world as it had been 
left by Vergil, even the imperfect lines being untouched. 

III. VergiPa rank aa a poet. 

VergiFs position as a great poet was assured in his 
lifetime. When a selection from his poems was recited 
in the theatre, the people rose as one man to reverence 
the poet, who happened to be present. Juvenal tells us 
that Vergil and Horace were the school-books in use iu 
his day, and they have remained so ever since. In the 
eyes of antiquity Vergil had one superior only, Homer, 
and it cannot be denied that the general voice of readers 
of tho classics in modern times would give a similar 


verdict. No doubt many can be found to prefer other 
Tvriters ; the beauties of Lucretius — outside his system, 
the passion of Catullus, the graceful art and sparkling 
wit of Horace, have made, and will make many admirers, 
but to the majority Vergil is always the master poet. 

It reraains to point out in ■what the magic of Vergil 
consists. Defects can be found in all his works, yet tbe 
poems remain masterpieces. The Pastorals are Greek 
adaptations, frequently unreal and artificial, but of their 
kind they are perfect. 

The herdsmen of Arcadia are impossible creations, but 
their songs and their loves never cease to please. 

The Georgics are a 'Farmer's vade mecum,' but they 
are perhaps the most perfect poems in existence. 

The Aeneid is an artificial epic, no song of heroes and 
heroic deeds coming fresh from the heart, but an epic 
with a jDurpose, whose object was the glorification of the 
name and empire of Rome, the praise of the reigning 
family, and the furthering of the ruler's attempt to 
revive old rites and ideas. If the poem has a hero, it is 
Eome ; Rome the invincible, breaking dowTi all obstacles, 
carrying out the decrees of Fate. Aeneas is no hero, at 
times he is a sententious bore. His ' piety ' is wearisome 
to a degree, his behaviour to Dido is despicable. The 
Aeneid is great not on account of, but in spite of its 
nominal hero. 

Such are some of the shortcomings of the poems ; now 
we turn to their beauties. Pre-eminently, Vergil was 
a master of style, 'Lord of Language,' as Tennyson has 
called him. No poet has possessed the power of using 
the right word, the hajjpiest touch, to such an extent as 
Vergil. His language is often artificial, even atFected, 
yet the most aflfected passage invariably leaves the im- 
pression that it is absolutely what was wanted, that it 


could not have been written othenvise. Again, Yergil 
possessed the power of pathos beyond almost all other 
poets : lines such as — 

' sunt lacrimae rerum, et mentem mortalia tangmit ; ' 

or again — 

' tendebantque manus ripae ulterioris amore : ' 

can be found in numbers throughout the Aeneid, whilo 
one single word is often sufficient to aiTest the attention, 
and touch the heart. 

When Creusa implores Aeneas to stay and guard his 
home — * parvumque patri tendebat lulum' — one word, 
' patri,' has a pathetic force that cannot be excelled in 
language. Such instances might be almost indefinitely 

Again, the tone of the poem is high and noble. 
Endurance of hardship, obedience to Heaven, horror of 
cruelty and perfidy, ring out again and again. 

To sum up, Vergirs chief characteristics are three : 
noble, often sublime thought ; marvellous power of 
pathos — 'infinie tristesse ' ; and a command of language 
unequalled before or since. 

Milton was steeped in Vergil ; Dante's ' Divine Comedy ' 
was inspired by ' the Master,' who was his guide through 
the ' Inferno ' ; from Vergil even St. Jerome is said to 
have drawn many of his views on Purgatory. And 
English people can need no stronger testimony than 
that of the late Laureate, to whom Vergil was : — 

' Wielder of the stateliest measure 

ever moulded by the lips of man.' 

One curious fact remains to be noticed. In the 
Middle Ages, Vergil had the title and fame of a great 
magician, and this — although it may be a distorted and 


even vulgar idea — is convincing testiniony of an influence 
such as has belonged to few poets. So in Marlowe's 
•Doctor Faustus,' scene vii, we find Faust saying : — 

• Theii up to Naples. . . . 
There saw we learned Maro's goklen tonib, 
The way he cut, an English mile in length, 
Thorough a rock of stone in one's nighfs space,' 

IV, The Metre of the Aeneid. 

The luetre of the Aeneid is called hexaraeter, that is, 
the line is divided into six feet, of which the first four 

niay be inditferently dactyls (— \^ o), or spondees ( ), 

the fifth is a dactyl, very rarely a spondee, and the last 
a spondee, or trochee (— y^). This metre is Gi-eek, but 
was adopted by the early Roman poets, Ennius, Lucretius, 
and Catullus, and their rough attempts cuhninated in the 
splendid majesty of the Vergilian hexameter — a majesty 
never approached by succeeding poets. The most im- 
jjortant feature of the hexameter is the caesura, a cutting 
or break in the verse. Usually this occurs in the third 
foot, and is either strong, i. e, after the first longsyllable 
of the foot, the conimonest form, e. g, 

'proxima Circaeae | raduntur litora terrae ' il, io\ 
or weak, i, e, after the trochee in the third foot, e. g. 

' sed variis portenta | deum terroribus obstant ' J. 58), 
A less conimon caesura is in the fourth foot, e, g, 

' auspiciis ; luiic progeniem | virtute futuram ' (1, 257). 

This caesura is frequently found with elision at the end 
of the third foot, e. g. 

'quin etiani vetorum eftigies j ex ordine avorum ' 1, 177). 


A spondaic encling, i. e. sponclees in both the two last 
feet, is rare in Vergil, although comnion in Greek and 
in Catulius. In this case the fourth foot is generally 
a dactjl, e. g. 

'Ardea Cru.>tunierique et turrigerae Autemnae ' (1. 631); 

but 1. 634 ends with four spondees, for .special reasons — 

' aut leves ocreas lento ducuut argento.' 

The verse u.suall}' ends with a word of two or three 
syllables, but Vergil allow.s occasionally words of one 
sylhible, often for purposes of emphasis ; and of four or 
more syllables, especially in Greek words, e. g. 

' consilium, et saevae nutu lunonis eunt res ' (1. 592). 

'auro insignihat, iam saetis obsita, iam bos ' {\. 790). 


'quam super adventu Teucrum Turni^iuc livmenaeis' 
(1. 344). 
Occasionally an elision occurs of a vowcl at the end of 
a verse before a vowel at thc beginning of the next, e. g. 

' iamque iter emeusi turres ac tecta Latinorum 
ardua . . .' [^U. 160-1). 

As a rule no such elision takes place ; e. g. 

' iamque ruhescebat radiis mare, et aethere ab alto 
Aurora . . .' (II. 25-6). 

Other exceptional instanccs, such as hiatus, and tiie 
lengthening of a short vowel in arsLs, will be noticed iu 
thc notes as they occur. 

The chief features of VergiTs verse are, (1) the variety 
of his lines ; (2) his adaptation of sound to sense. 

Both these will be understood after reading a page of 


text, and need not be discussed here in detail. I merely 
add two or three famous instances of the latter. Compare 

' quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula eampum,' 

a line in which the hurrving dactyls represent the gallop- 
ing steeds, and 

'Belli ferratos rumpit Saturnia po»tes ' (1. 622', 

in which the slow. halting spondees express the weight 
of the gate and the ditficulty experienced in opening it. 

The last point to be noticed is the use of alliteration, 
i. e. the grouping together of words beginning with the 
same letter. As examples may be quoted : 

' captivi 2>endent currus, curvaeque secures 
et cristae capitum, et portarum ingentia claustra, 
spiculaque clipeique ereptaque rostra carinis' i^II. 184-6^ ; 


'aurea percussum virga versumque venenis' (I. 190 . 

The last example, alliteration of ' v,' is especially common. 
Alliteration is also medial as well as initial, i. e. is 
found in the middle as well as at the beginning of 
words, e. g. : 

'^ali iufus templo divum pa<i'iaque Ladnus' J. 192 . 

V. Translations. 

The translators of Vergil have been so numerous that 
it is impossible here to do more than mention the most 
prominent, and to give brief extracts of their work. 

The most famous tmnslation, both from its author's 
rank as a poet and from the real merit of the work, is 
that of John Dryden. It is true that the translator 
allowed himself to depart freely — perhaps too freely— 


tVoiu the original, and that the version at tinies sniacks 

as niuch of Dryden as of Vergil ; but the spirit of the 

translation falls littlc below that of the Latin, and if 

Vergil was a master of the hexameter, Diyden was 

equally without a rival in his command of the ten- 

syllabled rhymed couplet. 

We quote 11. 601-615 : 

' A solemn custom was observed of old. 
Which Latium hcld, and now thc Roman.s liold; 
Their standard when in fightingfields they rear 
Against tho fierco Hyrcanians, or dechire 
Tlie Scythian, Indian, or Arabian war ; 
Or from the boasting Parthians woukl regaiii 
Their eagles, lost in Carrae's bloody pbiin. 
Two gates of steel i tlio name of Mars they bear, 
And still are worsliipped with rebgious fear) 
Before his templo stand : the dire al)ode, 
And the feared issues of the furious goib 
Are fenced with brazen bolts ; -witbout the gates, 
Tlie wary guardiau Janus doulily waits. 
Then, wben thc sacred senatc notcs tlie wars, 
The Roman consul tbeir decrec declares, 
And in his robes tho sounding gates unbars. 
TJie youth in military shouts arisc, 
And the loud trumpets break the yiekling skies.' 

Another translation in the sume metre was the work of 
Christopher Pitt, published in the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. More literal than Dryden's work, it 
falls far short of it in vigour and spirit, as the following 
passage will be sufficient to show, 11. 107-119: - 
'Tbe lieroe with his son and chiefs had biid 
Tbeir limbs at easo beneath a cooling sliade; 
Then, dictated by Jove, tho banquet spread 
On cakes of flour, along the verdant mead ; 
The slemler cakes the l)usy Trojans load 
With fruits austcre, aud wiUlings of tlie wood. 
These scanty viands soon consum'd, the crew 
Compeird by liunger, on tlieir tal)h's flew ; 
FuU eager they devour'd, by want distrest, 
Tho Crail supporters of tlie failing fcast. 


When, witli a l;\ugh, Ascanius — "We devour 
The plates and boards on which we fed before." 
Th' auspicious words his sire in rapture took. 
And weigh'd what once the oracle had spoke.' 

Passing by versions by Symmons - much indebtecl to 
Dryden — and others, now all but ibrgotten, we come to 
the translation of Professor Conington, which must rank 
as one of the most successful in the English Uinguage, 
for, in addition to no small poetical merit, it is more 
scholarly and accui-ate than its predecessors. It is 
written in the ballad metre employed with such success 
by Scott in Marmion and other poems. We quote 

'Gently, as mother might, she speaks, 
The hot tears rolling down her cheeks, 
Tears for her hapless daughter shed, 
And Phrygia's hated bridal bed : 
"And shall a Dardan fugitive, 
fatlicr, with Lavinia wife ? 
And wiU you' not compassion take 
For father's, sire's, or motlier's sake'? 
Aye, well I know, the first fair gale, 
Shall see the faithless pirate sail, 
And bear from home the weeping maid. 
The prize of his triumphant raid. 
Not thus, forsooth the Phrygian swain 
Made stealthy jjrogress o'er the main, 
To Sparta won his way, and bore 
Fair HeUn to the Idaean shore. 
Where now your sacred promise ? where 
The love you wont your own to bear ? 
Or where that hand, whose friendly grasp 
The hand of Turnus oft would clasp ? " ' 

Other nineteenth-century versions are those of Rhoades 
and Lord Bowen, the latter of which enjoys a considerable 
reputation. The last famous translation is that of 
William Morris, in 1876, written in fourteen-syllable 
rhjnned couplets, one line of English answering to one 


line of Latin. This remarkable version, of whose en- 
cluring popularity it is yet too early to speak, is above 
all things the work of a true poet, and combines 
scholarship with jjoetic spirit. If it has a fault, it is 
that the long, somewhat heavy line, and the translator's 
love for employing archaic and Scandinavian diction, 
hardly represent happily thc cven, stately flow of the 
Vergilian hexameter. Several quotations will be found 
in the notes. 




1-24. Caieta, Aeneas's nurse, dies and is huried in a spot 
subsequentli/ called after her. The Trojans then sail j)ast 
the sJiores qf Circe's land, and hear ihe roars of the heasts 
tvhom she has enchanted . Neptune sat^es them froni heing 
driren ashore there hy sending a favouring wind, 

Tu quoque litoribus nostris, Aeneia nutrix, 

aeternam moriens famam, Caieta, dedisti : 

et nunc servat honos sedem tuus, ossaque nomen 

Hesperia in magna, si qua est ea gloria, signat. 

at pius exsequiis Aeneas rite solutis, 5 

aggere composito tumuli, postquam alta quierunt 

aequora, tendit iter velis, portumque relinquit. 

adspirant aurae in noctem, nec candida cursus 

Luna negat, splendet tremulo sub lumine pontus. 

proxima Circaeae raduntur litora terrae, 10 

dives inaccessos ubi Solis filia lucos 

adsiduo resonat cantu, tectisque superbis 

urit odoratam nocturna in lumina cedrum, 

arguto tenues percurrens pectine telas. 

hinc exaudiri gemitus iraeque leonum 15 

vincla recusantum et sera sub nocte rudentum, 

saetigerique sues, atque in praesepibus ursi 



saevire, ac formae magnorum ulularo luporum, 
quos hominum ex facie dea saeva potentibus lierbis 
induerat Circe in vultus ac terga ferarum. 20 

quae ne monstra pii paterentur talia Troes 
delati in portus, neu litora dira subirent, 
Neptunus ventis implevit vola secundis, 
atque fugam dedit et praetor vada fervida vexit. 

CiRCK (From u Pompeian ■wall-painting', and bas-relief.) 

25-36. At (hnj-hrenk Ihe iriinl Jell stiiddexhj and Anuas 
raiKjht sijht of the iroorU that surround the Tiber's hanks, 
irhere iiiani/ birds irere singinij. He hade us tiini oiir 
prow to land, and joijfiillij entered the rirer. 

iamque rubescebat radiis mare, et aethere ab alto 25 
Aurora in roseis fulgebat lutea bigis : 


cuin venti posuere, omnisque repente resedit 
flatus, et in lento luctantur marmore tonsae. 
atque hic Aeneas ingentem ex aequore lucum 
prospicit : hunc inter fluvio Tiberinus amoeno 30 
verticibus rapidis et multa flavus harena 
in mare prorumpit, variae circunique supraque 
adsuetae ripis vokicres et fluminis alveo 
aethera mulcebant cantu lucoque vohibaut. 

Fatkek Tiber. (From a Colossal figxxre in the Louvre.; 

flectere iter sociis terraeque advertere proras 
imperat et hietus fluvio succedit opaco. 


37-45. Tlie poct iiivokes the Miise to iiispire liliii irJiile Jir 
tells oftJie state of Latiunt, ancl tJie hcgiiiniiifi of tJie icar. 
Dreadfiil icar is Jiis tJienie, av.d tJie deatJi ofJt-ings. 

Nunc age, qui reges, Erato, quae tempora rerum, 

quis Latio antiquo fuerit status, advena chissem 

cum primum Ausoniis exercitus aj^pulit oris, 

expediam, et primae revocabo exordia pugnae. 40 

Al.N. \1I C 



tu vutem, tu, divn, mone. dicam horrida bella, 
dicaiii acies, actosque animis in funera reges, 
Tyrrhenamque manum, totamque sub arma coactam 
Hesperiam. maior rerum mihi nascitur ordo, 
maius opus moveo. 

Faun. (l''rom a statue in the Capitoline Museiuii, Eome.) 

45-58. LafiiiKs, an nhl nian. spiioH) fiviii Satiiniiis, iras 
king of lAitiitiii. Ilis onhf cliild iias a daiu/hter, Larinia ; 
lier iiiaiii/ siiifors irished fo niarrii, oiie of irJioin, Tiinixs, 
iras faroiired hi/ fhe queen. Biif flie gods irere adrerse, 
and sent terrifijing poiieiits. 

rex arva Latinus et urlns 45 
iam senior longa placidas in pace regebat. 
hunc Fauno et nympha genitum Laurente Marica 


accipimus. Faiuio Picus pater ; isque parentem 
te, Saturne, refert ; tu sanguinis ultimus auctor. 
filius huic fato divom prolesque virilis 50 

nulla fuit, primaque oriens erepta iuventa est. 
sola domum et tantas servabat filia sedes, 
iam matura viro, iam plenis nuljilis annis. 
multi illam magno e Latio totaque petebant 
Ausonia ; petit ante alios pulcherrimus omnes 55 
Turnus, avis ata^-isque potens, quem regia coniunx 
adiungi generum miro properabat amore : 
sed variis portenta deum terroribus obstant. 

59-80. Tliere ivas a sacred laicrel in the palace, ichich had 
beeii there wJien the city tras foanded. On this a sicarni 
of bees settled, and a seer iiitcrpreted this to inean the 
coininfj of a stranger, icho shonhl rule in the citij. More- 
orer, tchen Lavinia icas standing at the idtar, her hair 
and attire caiight Jire. TJiis signified that she shoiild 
befainoiis, hut that a great icar should befall the j)eople. 

laurus erat tecti medio in penetralibus altis 
sacra comam. multosque metu servata per annos, 60 
quam pater inventam. primas cum conderet arces, 
ipse ferebatur Phoebo sacrasse Latinus, 
Laurentesque ab ea nomen posuisse colonis. 
huius apes summum densae — niirabile dictu — 
stridore ingenti liquidum trans aethera vectae, 65 
obsedere apicem, et, pedibus per mutua nexis, 
examen subitum ramo frondente pependit. 
continuo vates 'externum cernimus,' inquit, 
' adventare virum. et partes petere agmen easdem 
partibus ex isdem, et summa dominarier aree.' 70 
c 2 


praetereji, castis adolet dum ultariu taedis, 
et iuxta genitorem ad«tat Lavinia virgo. 
visa, nefas, longis comprendere crinibus ignem, 
atque omnem ornatum flamma crepitante cremari, 
regalesque accensa comas, accensa coronam 75 

insignem gemmis ; tum fumida lumine fulvo 
involvi, ac totis Vulcanum spargere tectis. 
id vero horrendum ac visu niiraljile forri ; 
namque fore inlustrem fama fatisque canebant 
ipsam, sed populo niagnum portendere bellum. 80 

81-106. The hiiuj consuJts flte oruele of FaioiK^ at AWioiea. 
Here, after hriiKjing yifts, he Jai/s hiiii down to sleep on 
the skins ofslaiightered sheep, aiid hears a roice hiddiiKj 
him not gire Lavinia in marriage to a Latin, hut to a 
foreigner tvhose descendants ivill rtile the icorld. lliis 
oracle had hecoiiie tvell knoivii irhen tlie Trojans reaclied 
the shore. 

at rex sollicitus monstris oracula Fauni, 
fatidici genitoris, adit, lucosque sub alta 
consulit Albunea, nemorum quae maxima sacro 
fonte sonat, saevamque exhalat opaca mephitim. 
hinc Italae gentes omnisque Oenotria telhis S5 

in dubiis responsa petunt ; huc dona sacerdos 
cum tulit et caesarum ovium sub nocte silenti 
pellibus inculjuit stratis somnosque petivit, 
niulta modis simulacra videt vohtantia miris, 
et varias audit voces, fruiturque deorum 90 

colloquio, atque imis Acheronta adfatur Avernis. 
hic et tum jiater ipse petens res])onsa Latinus 
centuni lanigeras mactabat rite bidentes, 


atque harum effultus tergo stratisque iacebat 
velleribus : subita ex alto vox reddita luco est : 95 
' ne pete conubiis natam sociare Latinis, 
o mea progenies, thalamis neu crede paratis : 
extei'ni venient generi, qui sanguine nostrum 
nomen in astra ferant, quorumque a stirpe nepotes 
omnia sub pedibus, qua Sol utrumque recurrens iod 
aspicit Oceanum. vertique regique videbunt.' 
haec responsa patris Fauni monitusque silenti 
nocte datos non ipse suo premit ore Latinus, 
sed circum late volitans iam Fama per urbes 
Ausonias tulerat, cum Laomedontia pubes 105 

gramineo ripae religa^it ab aggere classem. 

107-147. Aeneas, luhis, and the ofher chiefs, land and tahe 
a meal, tising cakes offlour for plates. Tlie food fin ished, 
thei) eat their tahles, as Iiilus renuuks in fun. Aeneas 
catches the word from his lips and sai/s, ^ Huil land 
destined to be nri/ hom^- ! My father prophesied that irhen 
Jiunr/er drove ns to eat our tahles ue viight hope to find 
tJiere a home. Let vs reconnoitre the land, hut first poiir 
lihation to Jove, and call upon Anchises." Tlien they 
pray to many c/ods, especially those—yet nnknoicn—of 
tliis new land, and Jove thunders thrice, and shoirs forlh 
hia lightning in token of approval. 

Aeneas primique duces et pulcher luhis 
corpora sub ramis deponunt arboris altae, 
instituuntque dapes, et adorea liba per herbam 
subiciunt epulis (sic luppiter ille monebat). 1 10 

et Cereale sohnn pomis agrestibus augent. 
consumptis hic forte aliis, ut vertere morsus 
exiguam in Cererem penuiia adegit edendi. 


et violare manu malisque audaeibus oibem 
fatalis crusti patulis nec parcere quadris: 115 

' heus, etiam mensas consumimus I ' inquit lulus, 
nec plura, adludens. ea vox audita laborum 
prima tulit finem, primamque loquentis ab ore 
eripuit pater, ac stupefactus numine pressit. 
continuo 'salve fatis mihi debita telhis, 120 

vosque,' ait, 'o fidi Troiae salvete Penates: 
hic domus, haec patria est. genitor mihi talia namque, 
nunc repeto, Anehises fatorum arcana reliquit : 
'' cum te, nate, fames ignota ad Htora vectum 
accisis coget dapibus consumere mensas, 125 

tum sperare domos defessus ibique memento 
prima locare manu moHrique aggere tecta." 
liaec erat illa fames ; haec nos suprema manebat 
exitiis positura modum. 

quare agite et primo laeti cum lumine solis 130 

quae loca, quive habeant homines, ubi moenia gentis, 
vestigemus. et a portu diversa petamus. 
nunc pateras Hbate lovi, precibusque vocate 
Anchisen genitorem, et vina reponite mensis.' 
sic deinde eflfi\tus frondenti tempora ramo 135 

impHcat, et GeniuuKiue loci pximamque deorum 
TeHurem Njmii^hasque et adhue ignota precatur 
flumina, tum Noctem Noctisque orientia signa 
Idaeumque lovem Plirygiamque ex ordine Matrem 
invocat. et dui^Hces Caeloque Ereboque parentes. i^o 
hic pater omnipotens ter caelo clarus ab alto 
intonuit, radiisque ardentem Hicis et auro 
ipse manu quatiens ostendit ab oethere uubem. 



diclitur hic subito Troiana per agmina rumor 
advenisse diem, quo debita moenia condant. 145 

certatim instaurant epulas atque omine magno 
crateras laeti statuunt et vina coronant. 


(From the Yatican Vergil and Pompeian wall-painting.) 

148-159. 0)1 fhe foUoiriiif/ daij flie TrojoHs inspect fhe 
eonntnj, and Aeneas sends a himdred spokesmen fo risit 
Latinus. Meaiiichile he lnii/ds a cam}). 

postera cum prima lustrabat lampade terras 

orta dies, urbem et fines et litora gentis 

diversi explorant : haec fontis stagna Numici, 1:0 

hunc Thyl:)rim fluvium. hic fortes habitare Latinos. 

tum satus Anchisa delectos ordine ab omni 

centum oratores augusta. ad moenia regis 

ire iubet, ramis vehitos Palladis omnes. 



donaque ferre viro, pacemque exposcere Teucris. 
haud mora, festinant iussi rapidisque feruntur 
passibus. ipse liumili designat moenia fossa, 
moliturque loeum, primasque in litore sedes 
eastrorum in morem pinnis atque aggere cingit. 


Markinq out Boundaries with a Plougii. (From a coiu.) 

160-191. Tlte hiindiviJ spokpsnifn fincl the young men 
exerrislnrj oufside fhe citi/, and a niessrnf/er is se)if to 
icarn Laflniis ofthv'r coinlnr/. He hids theni he suinninned 
to hls 2>i'esence, aiid sits 011 hls fhrone, In the f/rcat hall 
where if uhis the custoin for l-ings to accept scepfre and 
fasces. Thcre icere stafues of his ancesiors hack to Janiis 
and Saturn, and many captured arnis, ivith chariots and 
shlps' heaks ; there too was Piciis, changed hy Circe into 
a hlrd. 

iamque iter omensi turres ac tecta Latinorum 160 
ardua cernebant iuvenes, muroque sul)ibant. 



ante urbem pueri et primaevo flore iuventus 
exereentur equis. domitantque in pulvere currus, 
aut acres tendunt arcus, aut lenta lacertis 
spicula contorquent, cursuque ictuque lacessunt; 165 
cum praevectus equo longaevi regis ad aures 
nuntius ingentes ignota in veste reportat 
advenisse viros. ille intra tecta vocari 

YouTiis Eacing. (From a vase-painting.) 

imperat et solio medius consedit avito. 

tectum augustum, ingens, centum sublime columnis, 

urbe fiiit summa, Laurentis regia Pici, 171 

horrendum silvis et religione parentum. 

hic sceptra accipere et primos attollere fasces 

regibus omen erat ; hoc illis curia templum, 

hae sacris sedes epulis ; hic ariete caeso 175 

perpetuis sohti patres considere mensi.s. 


quiu etiam veterum effigies ex ordine avorum 
uutiqua e cedro, Italusque paterque Sabiuus 
vitisator, curvam ser\-aus sub iuiagine falcem, 
Saturnusciue sonex, lanique bifrontis imago, iSo 

nf flS 





IV l/ 










Statit: ov Janus, (Frora a coin of ' Marcus Anrolins.') 

vestibulo adstuliant, aliiquo al> origine reges, 
]Martia(iue ol) patriam pugnando vulnera passi. 
niultaque praeterea sacris in postibus arma, 
«•aptivi ]>end('nt currus, curvae(pie secures, 
et cristae capituni, et portarum iugentia claustra. 1S5 


spieulaque clipeique ereptaque rostra carinis. 

ipse Quirinali lituo parvaque sedebat 

succinctus trabea, laevaque ancile gerebat 

Picus equum domitor ; quem capta cupidine coniunx 

aurea percussum virga versumque venenis lyo 

fecit avem Circe, sparsitque coloribus alas. 

192-21 1. Latinns speaJcs to the Tyojans: ' Tell me where- 
fore i/e hace come '^ Dkl ije lose i/oin' watj, or icere ije 
driven bi/ storms? Shiin not oiir liospitaJiti/, for indeed 
I rememher there is a riimoiir that Dardunus icas born in 
tJiis coiintrij ^ Dardaniis ijoiir ancebtor.' 

tali intus templo divum patriaque Latinus 
sede sedens Teucros ad sese in tecta vocavit ; 
atque haec ingressis placido prior edidit ore : 194 
■ dicite Dardanidae, neque enini nescimus et urbem 
et genus, auditique advertitis aequore cursum, 
quid petitis? quae causa rates, aut cuius egentes 
litus ad Ausonium tot per vada caerula vexit? 
sive errore viae. seu tempestatibus acti, 
qualia multa mari nautae patiuntur in alto, 200 

fluminis intrastis ripas portuque sedetis, 
ne fugite hospitium, neve ignorate Latinos 
Saturni gentem, haud vinclo nee legibus aequam, 
sponte sua veterisque dei se more tenentem. 204 
atque equidem memini — fama est obscurior annis — 
Auruncos ita ferre senes, his ortus ut agris 
Dardanus Idaeas Phrygiae penetrarit ad urbes, 
Threiciamque Samum, quae nunc tSamothacia fertur. 
hinc ilhim, Corythi Tyrrliena ab sede profectum. 


aurea nunc solio stellantis regia caeli 210 

accij>it et numerum divorum altaribus auget.' 

212-248. Then ansirered IJioneiis, ' hing, of set ptirpose 
came we hiiher, driven from oiir realm, led hij Aeneas 
sprung from Jore. Of the icar hetireen Eiirope and Asia 
all fhe world knotvs ; we, saved from that Jlood, heg for 
a shelter in i/oin' coasts. Xor shall ive disgrace you, or 
he nngratefiil. Many nations have offered its irhat we 
ask from yoii, but Jieaven drove ns fo yoiir land. Tliis 
was the hirthplace of Dardanns, hifher Apollo iroiild 
have iis refurn. Aeneas sends thee giffs — siirh as irere 
spared from the flames —Anchises^ cup, and Priam's 
sceptre and diadem.' 

dixerat ; et dicta Ilioneus sic voce secutus : 

* rex, genus egregium Fauni, nec fluctibus actos 

atra subegit hiemps vestris succedore terris, 

nee sidus regione viae litusve fefellit : 215 

consilio hanc omnes aniniisque volentibus urbem 

adferimur, pulsi regnis, quae maxima quondani 

extremo veniens Sol aspiciebat Olymi^o. 

ab love principium generis ; love Dardana pubes 

gaudet avo ; rex ipse lovis de gente suprema 220 

Troius Aeneas, tua nos ad limina misit. 

quanta per Idaeos saevis effusa Mycenis 

tempestas ierit cami^os, quibus actus uterque 

Europae atque Asiae fatis concurrerit orbis, 

audiit et si quem tellus extrema refuso 225 

submovot Oceano, et si quem extenta plagarum 

quattuor in medio dirimit plaga Solis iniqui. 

diluvio ex illo tot vasta per aequora vecti 

dis sedem exiguam patriis litusque rogamus 229 

innocuum et cunctis imdaniqueauramque patentem. 



nou erinius regno indecores, nec vestra feretur 
fania levis, tantique abolescet gratia facti, 
nec Troiam Ausonios gremio excepisse pigebit. 
fata per Aeneae iuro dextramque potentem, 


(From Greek vase-j^aiiitiiigs.) 

sive fide, seu quis bello est expertus et armis : 235 
multi nos pupuli, multae — ne temne, quod uUro 
praeferimus manibus vittas ac verba precantia- — 
et petiere sibi et voluere adiungere gentes ; 
sed nos fata deum vestras exquirere terras 
imperiis egere suis. hinc Dardanus ortus : 240 


huc repetit iussisque ingentibus urguet Apollo 
Tyrrhenum atl Thybrini et fontis vada sacra Numici. 
dat tibi praeterea fortunae parva prioris 
munera, rehquias Troia ex ardente receptas. 
hoc pater Anchises auro hbabat ad aras ; 245 

hoc Priami gestamen erat, cum iura vocatis 
more dai*et populis, sceptrumque sacerque tiaras 
Iliadumque Labor vestes.' 

249-273. Latimis is silent for a iMle, pondering Faitiius' 
old oracle ; this, he sees, is the stranger irJio is to he his 
son-in-Iaw, aiid to conqiier the ivorJd. Al hist he speaks ; 
' May the f/ods faroitr oiir intcnt : it shall he as yon icish. 
I take the gifts ; and hope Aeiieas ivill coiiie to partake 
of nii/ hospitalitjj. Tell hiin that I hare a daiightcr icho 
is fated to marri/ a straiiyer : he, methinks, is the man, 
and my wish is ereii as my thoitght.^ 

talibus Ilionei dictis defixa Latinus 
obtutu tenet ora, soloque immobihs haeret. 250 

intentos volvens oculos. nec purpura regem 
picta movet, nec sceptra movent Priameia tantum, 
quantum in conubio natae thalamoque moratur ; 
et veteris Fauni volvit sub pectore sortem. 
hunc ilhim fatis externa ab sede profectum 255 

portendi generum, paribusque in regna vocari 
auspiciis ; huic progeniem virtute futuram 
egregiam, et totum quae viribus occupet orbem. 
tandem laetus ait : ' di nostra incepta secundent 
auguriumque suum I dabitur, Troiane, quod optas: 
munera nec sperno. non vobis. rege Latino, 261 
divitis uber agri Troiaeve opulentia deerit. 
ipse modo Aeneas, nostri si tanta cupido est, 




si iungi hospitio properat sociusque vocari, 
adveniat, vultus neve exhorrescat amicos. 
pars mihi pacis erit dextram tetigisse tyranni. 
vos contra regi mea nunc mandata referte : 
est mihi nata, viro gentis quam iungere nostrae 
non patrio ex adyto sortes, non phirima caelo 
monstra sinunt : generos externis adfore ab oris, 270 
hoc Latio restare canunt, qui sanguine nostrum 
nomen in astra ferant. hmic ilhim poscere fata 
et reor, et, si quid veri mens augurat, opto.' 

Honsi: axd Trappisgs. (From sculptnre and •wall-paintings.) 

274-285. Tlien Latlnns chooses a lumdred Jiorses froin his 
sfnd as a present for the Trojans, and gives the enroi/s 
steeds irith fnrnitnre of gold ; for Aeneas he sends a 
chariot and pair—horses ofheannhj origin hred hij Circe. 
TJie enroijs retnrn io the Trojan camp. 

haec eifatus equos numero pater eligit omni. 
stabant ter centum nitidi in praesepibus altis. 275 


omnibus exteniplo Teucris iubet ordine cluci 

instratos ostro alipedes pictisque tapetis. 

aurea pectoribus deniissa monilia pendent ; 

tecti auro fulvum mandunt sub dentibus auruni ; 

absenti Aeneae currum geminosque iugales 280 

semine ab aetherio spirantes naribus ignem, 

illorum de gente, patri quos daedala Circe 

supposita de matre nothos furata creavit. 

talibus Aeneadae donis dictisque Latini 

sublimes in equis redeunt, pacemque reportant. 2S5 

2S6-322. Juno heholds Acneas and the Trojan .//(<=/ ; and 
filled with anger saijs: ' Accnrsed race ! coidd they not 
fall in hattle ? WJii/ did not Troij hurn its inhahitant.-i? 
I snppose inij ivrath is sated : naij, I folloircd thein over 
the sea, and consiiined the power of sky and sea againsf 
fhem, to no purpose. They are safe in the Tiher. Mars 
could destroy the Lapithae, aiid Diana Cah/don, whose 
sins were not so great. Biit I ain ranquished by Aeneas. 
I will turn to Hellfor help. If I cannot keep fhe Trojans 
froin Latiuin, or stop the inarriage of Laciiiia. I can 
cause delay, and drstroy the two peoples. Lavinia^s 
dower shall he Trojan and linfiilian blood, and a second 
Faris sliall he honi asfafal as the Jirst to Troy.'' 

occe auteni Inachiis sese veferebat ab Argis 
saeva lovis coniunx, aurasque invecta tenebat, 
et laetum Aenean classemque ex aethere longe 
Dardaniam Siculo ]>rospexit ab usque Pachyno. 
niuliri iam tecta vidct, iam fidere terrae, 290 

deseruisse rates. stetit acri fixa dolore ; 
tum quassans ca])ut haec effundit ])ector(' dicta : 
' heu stir]>ein invisam, et fatis contraria nostris 
fata Phrygum ! num Sigeis occumbere cnnq^is. 


muu capti i)otuere capi ? uiuu iuceusa creuiavit 295 
Troia viros ? medias acies mediosque per igues 
iuveuere viam. at, credo, mea uumiua taudem 
fessa iacent, odiis aiit exsaturata quievi. 
quiu etiam patria excussos iufesta per uudas 
ausa sequi, et profugis toto me oppouere pouto. 300 
absumptae iu Teucros vires caelique marisque. 
quid Syrtes aut Scylla mihi, quid vasta Charybdis 
profuit ? optato couduutur Thybridis alveo, 
securi pelagi atque mei. Mai's perdere gentem 
immaueui Lapithum valuit ; concessit iu iras 305 
ipse deum antiquam geuitor Calydoua Dianae ; 
quod scelus aut Lapithas tantum, aut Calydona 

mereutem ? 
ast ego, magna lovis couiunx. uil liuquere iuausum 
quae potui infelix, quae memet iu omuia verti 
viucor ab Aenea. quod si mea uumiua uou sunt 310 
magna satis, dubitem haud equidem implorare quod 

usquara est. 
flectere si nequeo superos, Acherouta movebo. 
non dal)itur reguis, esto, prohibere Latinis, 
atque immota manet fatis Lavinia coniiinx : 
at trahere, atque moras tautis licet addere rebus ; 
at licet amborum populos exscindere regum. 316 
hac gener atque socer coeant mercede suorum. 
sanguine Troiano et Rutulo dotabere, virgo. 
et Belloua manet te pronuba. nec face tautum 
Cisseis praegnans ignes enixa iugales ; - 320 

quin ideni Veneri partus suus et Paris alter. 
fuuestaeque iterum recidiva in Pergama taedae/' 



Priest of Bellona, witii Battlk-axes and Militauy Cloak. 
(From a Koman bas-relief.) 

323-340. Thoi Jiiiio canie to raiih and fnniiiiioiiPcl AUccto 
froin fJu' iiifcrnaJ rii/ioiis. AUccto loicd irar, aiid irratJi, 
aiid crinic, and iras Jiatcd cren hi/ riiito and JierficndisJi 
sisters. for Jicr terrihJeface and Jier snaJ,-cs. Jiino hcggcd 
Jier to JicJp Jier to 2»'<'i'cnt tJie niarriage, for Jiers is tJie 
poirer to sct cren hrotliers against cacJi otJier, Jiers arc a 
tJioHsancl arts of evil. Let Jier sow u-ar hetirecn Trojana 
and Italians. 

h;iec ul)i dicta dedit, terras liorrenda petivit : 
luctificam Allecto diraruni ab sede dcarum 


iiifernistjue ciet tenebris. cui tristia bella 325 

iraeque insicliaeque et crimina noxia cortli. 

odit et ipse pater Pluton, odere sorores 

Tartarae monstruni : tot sese vertit in ora. 

tam saevae facies, tot pullulat atra colubris. 

quam luno his acuit verbis ac talia f;itur : 330 

' hunc mihi da proprium, virgo sata Nocte, laborem, 

hanc operam, ne noster honos infractave cedat 

fjxma loco, neu conubiis ambire Latinum 

Aeneada^ possint, Italosve obsidere fines. 

tu potes unanimos armare in proelia fratres, 335 

atque odiis versare domos, tu verbera tectis 

funereasque inferre faces, tibi nomina mille, 

mille nocendi artes. fecundum concute pectus, 

disice compositam pacem, sere crimina belli ; 

arma velit poscatque simul rapiatque iuventus.' 340 

341-372. Allecto (joes to LatiiiDi ancl risits Aiiiata iclio is 
aiujerecl at the p)oposecl inarriage. Into her hosom the 

Jiend throics a snake, which, iinseen, breathes oti her its 
j)oisonoi(s hreath. At Jirst Amata did not feel the fiill 

force of the poison, ancl spol-e gentlij. as a mother might, 
to her hiishctnd. ' Hast thou 110 pitg,' she asks, 'for 
Lacinia and m^? Aeneas w.U deseH his wife soon. 
Rememher Paris and Helen. Where is noiv thij plightcd 
irord to Turnus? If Lavinia must wed a foreigner, 
Turniis cccn trace descent to Mijcenae.' 

exin Gorgoneis Allecto infecta venenis 
principio Latium et Laurentis tecta tyranni 
celsa petit, tacitumque obsedit limen Amatae, 
quam super adventu Teucrum Turnique hymenaeis 
femineae ardentem curaeque iraeque coquebant. 345 
D 2 



huic deu caeruleis uuuiu do criuibus auguem 
conicit inque sinuui praecordia ad iutima suljdit, 
quo furibunda domum moustro perniisceat oninem. 
ille inter vestes et levia j^ectura lapsus 
volvitur attactu nullo, fallitque furentem 350 

vipeream inspirans animam. fit tortile collo 

A FuKV. (Froin a bas-relicf ou a sarcopbagus.) 

aurum ingens coluber, fit longae taenia vittae, 
inuectitque comas, et membris lubricus errat. 
ac dum prima lues udo sublapsa veneno 
pertemptat sensus atque ossibus implicat igneni, 35: 
nocdum aniuius toto j^ercepit pecture flanniuim. 
luollius et sulito matrum du more locuta est. 


multa siiper nata lacrimans Phrj^ofiisqne hymenaei.s : 
■ exsnlibusne datur ducenda Lavinia Teucris, 
o genitor, nec te miseret nataeque tuique ? 360 

nec niatris miseret, quam primo aquilone relinc|uet 
j^erfidus, alta petens, abducta virgine, praedo ? 
at non sic Phrygius penetrat Lacedaemona pastor, 
Ledaeamque Helenam Troianas vexit ad urbes ? 
quid tua sancta fides ? quid cura antiqua tuorum, 365 
et consanguineo totiens data dextera Turno ? 
si gener externa petitur de gente Latinis, 
idque sedet. Faunique premunt te iussa parentis, 
omnem equidem sceptris terram quae libera nostris 
dissidet externam reor et sic dieere divos. 370 

et Tiu-no, si prima domus repetatur origo, 
Inachus Acrisiusque patres mediaeque Mycenae.' 

373-384. Laflmif! is lounored, and Amata, notv filJed irith 
the snake's poison. 7'iishes in frenzi/ throiqih the citi/, like 
a top ifhipped hij hoys round an emptij coiiii. 

his ubi nequiqiiam dictis experta Latinum 
conti'a stare videt, penitusque in viscera lapsum 
serpentis furiale mahim. totamque pererrat ; 375 
tura vero infehx, ingentibus excita monstris, 
immensam sine more furit lymphata per urbem : 
ceu quondam torto volitans sub verbere turljo, 
quem pueri magno in gyro vacua atria circum 
intenti ludo exercent : ille actus habena 380 

cni"A-atis fertur spatiis : stupet inscia supra 
impul)esque manus, mirata volubile buxum : 
dant aniaiios plagae, non cursu segnior illo 
per medias in-bes agitur populosc[ue feroces. 



385-405. Then slie )ii.shes into the woods and hides Lari)iia 
thei-e, fei<j)iinf/ Bacchic fienzi/, shoutl)t(j that JJacchiis 
aIo)ie is ico)ihij of the maidrn. Other mativns join he)' 
shrieking and hi-andishiny the t]ii/i'sns. Aniata iii ihe 
inidst, ioixh in hand and icitJi )-oIli)tf/ ei/es, shoufs io 
the >natfons to join in the ivnls icith Jtcr. 

quia etiam in silvas, simulato uuuiiue 13acclii, ^,85 
inaius adorta nefas, maioremque orsa furorem, 

Bacciiahals. (Fi-om n 

evolat et natam froudosis moutibus alxlit, 
quo thalamum erij^iat Teucris taedasquo moretur, 
* evoe Bacche,' fremens ; solum te virgine dignum 
vociferaus, etenim mollos tibi sumere tliyrso.s, 390 
te lustrare choro, sacrum tibi pascere criuem. 
fama volat, furiisque accensas pectore matres 
idfMu omnes sinuil ardor agit nova quaorere tecta. 


deseruere domos, ventis dant colla comasque : 
ast aliae treniulis ululatibus aethera complent, 395 
l^ampineasque gerunt incinctae pellibus hastas. 
ipsa inter medias flagrantem fervida pinuni 
sustinet, ac natae Turnique canit h^unenaeos, 
sanguineam torquens aciem, torvumque repente 
clamat : ' lo matres. audite, ubi quaeque, Latinae : 
si qua piis animis manet infelicis Amatae 401 

gratia, si iuris materni cura remordet, 
solvite crinales "sdttas, capite orgia mecum.' 
talem inter silvas, inter deserta ferarum, 
reginam Allecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi. 405 

406-434. Tlien AUcdo fies to the cifi/ of Titntus, Airlea, 
foiitided bi/ Danae, nhefe she Jittds the hevo asleep. 
Tltefeiipon she changes hefseJf iiito the fontt of an old, 
wrinkled uotnan, even Cah/he, 2)fiestess of Jtino, and 
S2)eaks tJiiis : ' Tnntiis, triit thoii stiffer tht/ sceptfe to pass 
to Tfojati settlefs? Latinus lifeaks the maffiage of 
Lavinia with thee, and seeJcs a fofeiejn son-in-Jaiv and 
heir. Go, Jai/ Joif tlie foe—tJion iciJt onJij iriit derisioti. 
Jtino lade tne teJl tJiee tJiis. Cotne tJien, pfepafe for 
hattle, hitfn tJie Plirjgian fleet. The gods hid tJtee. Let 
Lalinus Jcnotv Jiow great is tliij migJit.'' 

postquam visa satis primos acuisse furores 
consiliumque omnemque domum vertisse Latini, 
protinus hinc fuscis tristis dea tollitur alis 
audacis Eutuli ad muros, quam dicitur urhem 
Acrisioneis Danae fundasse colonis, 410 

praecipiti delata Noto. locus Ardea quondam 
dictus avis : et nunc magnum tenet Ardea nomen : 
sed fortuna fuit. tectis hic Turnus in altis 
iam mediam nigra carpebat nocte quietem. 


Alleeto toi-vam facieni et furialia inembia 415 

exuit : in vultus sese transformat aniles, 
et frontem obscenam rugis arat ; induit albos 
cum vitta crines ; tum ramum innectit olivae ; 
fit Calybe lunonis anus templicj^ua sacerdos, 
et iuveni ante oeulos his se cuni vocibus offert : 420 
' Turne, tot incassum fusos patiere labores. 
et tua Dardaniis transscribi sceptra colonis ? 
rex tibi coniugium et quaesitas sanguine dotes 
abnegat. externusque in regnum quaeritur lieres, 
i nunc, ingratis offer te. irrise, periclis : 425 

Tyrrhenas, i, sterne acies ; tege pace Latinos. 
haec adeo til^i me, placida cum nocte iaceres, 
ipsa palam fari omnipotens Saturnia iussit. 
quare age, et armari pubem portisque moveri 
laetus in arma para, et Phrygios qui flumine pulcliro 
consedere, duces pictasque exure carinas. 4.51 

caelestum vis magna iubet. rex ipse Latinus. 
ni dare coniugium et dicto parere fatetur, 
sentiat, et tandem Turnum experiatur in armis.' 

435-457. Tu)-iuis iii wor» s(ii/s: '/ Jiair ln^ard qf thc 
Trojans' arriral, and Jinio sfill renieinhers me, hut tJiou 
art irorn oiit wifJi. age, aml dost dreani of irar. BacJx- to 
tliji tempJe, leare irar to nien.' AlJecto in furii taJx-es 
ajiaiii Jier fiendisJi sJiaiie, and cries, • BeJioJd, I, fJiat ain 
irorn ont iritJi age, and dreain of irar, hid tJiee JooJi ! 
I hare conie froiii the Jioine of fJie Dread Sisters, war and 
deatJi in inii Jiand.' She JiiirJs a hraiid af Titrniis nnd 
tJie torcJi pierces Jiis hreast. 

hic iuvenis vatem irridens, sic orsa vicissim 435 

ore refert : 'classes invcctas Thybridis undam 


non, iit rere, meas effugit niintius n,ures ; 

ne tantos mihi finge metus ; nec regia luno 

immemor est nostri, 

sed te victa situ verique effeta senectus, 440 

o mater, curis nequiquam exercet, et arma 

regum inter falsa vatem formidine ludit. 

cura tibi divom effigies et templa tueri ; 

bella viri pacemque gerent, quis l>ella gerenda.' 

talibus Allecto dictis exarsit in iras. 445 

at iuveni oranti subitus tremor occupat artiis ; 

deriguere oculi ; tot Erinys sil)ilat liydris, 

tantaque se facies aperit. tmn flammea torquens 

lumina cimctantem et quaerentem dicere pliira 

reppulit et geminos erexit crinil)us angues, 450 

verberaque insonuit, rabidoque liaec addidit ore : 

• en ego victa situ. quam veri effeta senectus 

arma inter regum falsa formidine ludit : 

respice ad haec ; adsum dirarum ab sede sororum ; 

bella manu letumque gero.' 455 

sic effata facem iuveni coniecit, et atro 

lumine fumantes fixit sul) pectoi'e taedas. 

458-474. Tii)-)ius u-cil-ffi i)i te)-fO)' (oul srels hls treajmis ; 
lils mad ivi'(ith Is as the holllng of water hi a cai(kh'0)i. 
He hlds hls Dieii i})-epa)'e fo)' wai; to (Jefe)i(J lialj/, and 
drlve oiit the foe : he himseJf wlll face Latlns and T)-ojans. 
TJie Riitidl talce nj> arins eageihj, unpelhd hi/ respiect for 
Tnrnns' heautij, (tnce.sfri/, and tcaiiike renown. 

olli somnum ingens rumpit pavor, ossaque et artus 

perfundit toto proruptus corpore sudor. 

arma amens fremit, arma toro tectisque requirit : 


saevit amor ferri et scelerata insania bolli, 461 

ira super : magno veluti cum flamma sonore 
virgea suggeritur costis undantis aeni. 
exsultantque aestu latices, furit intus aquai 
fumidus atque alte spumis exul^erat amnis ; 465 

nec iam se ca})it unda ; vnlat vapor ater ad auras. 
ergo iter ad regom polluta pace Latinum 
indicit primis iuvenum, et iubet arma parari, 
tutari Italiam, detrudere finibus hostem ; 
se satis ambobus Teucrisque venire Latinisque. 470 
haec ubi dicta dedit divosque in vota vocavit. 
certatini sese Kutuli exhortantur in arma. 
Ininc decus egregium formae movet atque iuventae, 
hunc atavi reges, hunc claris dextera factis. 

475-510. AUcdo Jlics to thc Trojan caiup (iiul, in a place 
where liihis liunted, she sent iipon his hoitnds the scent 
of a stag. This stag nris the pet of Silria, daiightcr qf 
Tyrrheiis, the roijal hcrdstnen ; it roanicd at irill all daij 
and (dicaijs returncd at nic/ht. The hotnids startcd it, 
and luliis shot at and ivonnd d it. It reached its stall 
hurt and groaning, aiid Silria roused the ritstics, trho 
gathered arined. irifh ichaterer theg could Jind. Tgrrluiis, in hand, led thcni 011. 

dum Turnus Rutulos animis audaci))us implet, 4-5 
Allecto in Teucros tStygiis se concitat alis, 
arte nova speculata lociun, quo litorc pulcher 
insidiis*cursuque feras agitabat lulus. 
hic subitam canil)us ral)iem Cocytia virgo 
obicit et noto nai"es contingit odore, 4S0 

ut cervum ai-dentes agerent ; quae prima labi>ruiu 
causa fuit belloque animos accendit agrestes. 



cervus emt forma praestanti et corniljus ingens, 
Tyrrhidae pueri cjuem matris ab ubeie raj^tum 
nutribant Tyrrheusque pater, cui regia parent 48; 
armenta et hite custodia credita campi. 
adsuetum imperiis soror omni Silvia cura 
mollibus intexens ornabat cornua sertis, 

HvsTiNG ScF.NE. (From a bas-relicf on u surciiphagu?.) 

peetebatque ferum, puroque in fonte hwabat. 

ille manum patiens mensaecpie adsuetus herili, 490 

errabat silvis, rursusque ad limina nota 

ipse domum sera quamvis se nocte ferebat. 

hunc procul errantem rabidae venantis luli 

commovere canes. fluvio cum forte secundo 

deflueret ripaque aestus viridante levaret. 495 


ipse etiam, oximine l.auclis succensiis amore, 
Ascanius curvo direxit spicula cornu ; 
nec dextrae erranti deus afuit, actaque multo 
perque uterum sonitu jierque ilia venit liarundo. 
saucius at quadrupes nota intra tecta refugit, 500 
successitque gemens stabulis, questuque cruentus 
atque imploranti similis tectum omne replebat. 
Silvia prima soror. palniis percussa lacertos, 
auxilium vocat et duros conclamat agrestes. 
olli. pestis enim tacitis latet aspera silvis. 505 

iiuprovisi adsunt. liic torre armatus obusto. 
sti])itis hic gravidi nodis : quod cuique repertum 
rimanti, telum ira facit. vocat agmina Tyrrlieus. 
quadrifidam quercum cuneis ut forte coactis 
scindebat, rapta spirans immane securi. 510 

511-539. Allirto 0)1 a f<t«hlo->-oof soiindcd a hont irlirrpirith 
the u-oodi^ rr^ouiided. The l(ik;s aud river.t hranl fhe 
KOmid, and nioihns prr.^^fn^d their rliildren to thrir hrrasts. 
The rii.^tic^ ritshed to hattle and the Trnjans i^onred out 
oftheii- ranip to help Ascaniiis. Xo lomjrr thei/ /ii/Jtt trith 
stakes, hiit tcith the strord, and their ireapons fiash in 
the siin Hj) fo fhe clouds. So the sea sirells gradualhj 
as the irind rii^es, ond at Ja-^^f reaches the skij. Ahno, 
rldest .^on of Tiirrhctis, iras sla itt.and ajed tlalaesus, richesf 
farmer in Ausonia, as he strore to ntake peace. 

at saeva e sj)eculis tempus dea nacta noeendi 
ardua tecta petit stabuli, et de culmine summo 
l^astorale cauit signuni. cornuque rocurvo 
Tartaream intendit vocem, qua protiiuis omne 
contremuit nomus et silvao insonuere profundae ; 
audiit ot Triviae ]on<io bicus. audiit amnis 516 


sulfureii Nar nlbus aqua, fontesque Velini ; 
et trepidae matres pressere ad pectora natos. 
tum vero ad vocem celeres, qua Jjucina signum 
dira dedit, raptis concurrunt undique telis 520 

indomiti agricolae ; nec non et Troia pubes 
Ascanio auxilium castris effundit apertis. 
direxere acies. non iam certamine agresti, 
stipitibus duris agitur sudibusve praeustis, 
sed ferro ancipiti decernunt, atrac[ue late 5^5 

horrescit strictis seges ensibus, aeraque fulgent 
sole lacessita, et lucem sub nubila iactant : 
lluctus uti primo coepit cum albescere vento, 
paulatim sese tollit mare et altius undas 
erigit, inde imo consurgit ad aethera fundo. 530 

hic iuvenis primam ante aciem stridente sagitta, 
natorum Tyrrhei fuerat qui maximus, Ahno, 
sternitur ; haesit enim sub gutture vuhius et udae 
vocis iter tenuemque inchisit sanguine vitam. 
corpora multa virum circa, seniorque Gahxesus, 535 
dum paci medium se offert, iustissimus unus 
qui fuit Ausoniisque ohm ditissimus arvis : 
quinque greges ilH bahintum, quina redibant 
armenta. et terram centum vertebat aratris. 

540-571. Then AJlecto hares Hesperia and ^flies io Juno 
to uliom she pyoudJtj sai/s : ' / have hegitn the war, and 
if thoH icilt consent, I will carn/ it to other cities, that 
Jielp niay come frnni aJJ sides.'' But Jitno sai/s, ^ enouyli 
of horror and deceit : Let Aeneas and Latinus ceJel}-afe 
the marriaf/e amid strife and hJoodshed. But do tJiou 
retitrn to thij pJace.'' AJJecto then retitrns to tlie under- 
wjrJil. TJiere is a ^iace^Ampsanctus, a vaJe in tJie midst 


of icoods, with a roaring torrent riiiiniiig throiiijh it. 
Hereare a caveaiid the hreuthimj places of Dis, aiid hcrc, 
throiigh an ahijss Jeading to Acheroii, AUecto descmded. 

atque ea per campos aequo dum Marte geruntur, 540 
liromissi dea facta potens, ubi sanguine bellum 
inibuit et primae commisit funera pugiiao, 
deserit Hesperiam, et caeli conversa per auras 
lunonem victrix adfatur voce superba : 
' en perfecta tilji bello discordia tristi ; 545 

dic in amicitiam coeant et foedera iimgant. 
quandoquidem Ausonio respersi sanguine Teucros, 
hoc etiam his addam, tua si mihi certa voluntas : 
finitimas in bella feram rumoribus urbes, 
accendamque animos insani Martis amore, 550 

undique ut auxilio veniant : spargam arma per 

agros, ' 
tum contra luno : ' terrorum et fraudis abunde est : 
stant belli causae, pugnatur comminus armis ; 
quae fors prima dedit, sanguis novus iml)uit arma. 
talia coniugia et tales celebrent hymenaeos 555 

egregium Veneris genus et rex ipse Latinus. 
te super aetherias errare Hcentius auras 
haud Pater illo velit, summi regnator Olympi. 
cede locis ; ego, si qua super fortuna laborum es-t, 
ipsa regam.' talos dederat Saturnia voces ; 560 

illa autem attollit stridentes anguibus ahas, 
Cocytique petit sedem, supera ardua linqmns. 
est locus Italiae medio sub niontibus altis 
uobilis et fama multis memoratus in oris. 
Ampsancti valles : densis liunc frondibus atrum 565 


urmiet iitrimque latus nemoris, medioque fragosus 
dat sonitum saxis et torto vei-tice torrens. 
liic specus horrendum et saevi spiracula Ditis 
monstrantur. ruptoque ingens Acheronte vorago 
pestiferas aperit fauces. quis condita Erinys, 570 
invisum numen. terras caehimque levabat. 

572-600. Tlie» Jtino (ih-es tJie Jinishinf) foiuh ; aU thc 
shephenls rush hack to the citij hearing their ehad, a>id 
call upon Latinus to take vengeance. Turnus is there 
nnd conq^lains of the Trojans' ivelcome and his own 
uronys. Tlie relatires of the uomen reveUinf/ uilh Amata 
demand war. Latinus stands nnshaken like a rock in 
ihe midst of waves, tiU heing nnahle to over-nde their 
design, seeing that things are going at Juno's hidding, he 
caUs the gods to n-ifness his unwiUingness to make uar, 
and prophesies punishmeut for Turnus and fhe rest. 
TJien he shufs himself up in his pcdace and gives tip 
fhe reins of power. 

nec minus interea extremam Saturnia liello 
imponit regina manum. ruit omnis in urbem 
pastoriim ex acie numerus, caesosque reportant 
Almonem puerum, foedatique ora Galaesi, 575 

implorantque deos, obtestanturque Latinum. 
Turnus adest, medioque in crimine caedis et igni 
terrorem ingeminat : Teucros in regna vocari ; 
stirpem admisceri Phrygiam ; se limine pelli. 579 
tum quorum attonitae Baccho nemorum avia matres 
insultantthiasis, — nequeenimlevenomenAmatae, — 
iindique collecti coeunt Martemque fatigant. 
ilicet infandum cuncti contra omina Ijellum, 
contra fata deum. perverso numine poscunt. 
certatim recris circumstant tecta Latini : 585 


ille velut pelagi rupes immota resistit. 

ut pelagi rupes magiio veniente fnigore, 

quae sese, multis circuni latnmtibus undis, 

mole tenet : scopuli necpiiquam et spumea circum 

saxa fremunt, laterique inlisa refunditur alga. 590 

verum ubi nuUa tlatur caecum exsuperare potestas 

consilium, et saevae nutu lunonis eunt res, 

multa deos aurasque pater testatus inanes, 

' frangimur heu fatis,' inquit, 'ferimurque procella ! 

ipsi lias sacrilego pendetis sanguine poenas, 595 

o miseri. te, Turne, nefas, te triste manebit 

supplicium, votisque deos venerabere seris. 

nam milii parta quies, omnisque in limine portus 

funere felici spolior. ' nec plura locutus 

saepsit se tectis, rerumque reliquit habenas. 600 

601-622. Tlierc inis a cittifoiii iii Ldtiiini. irlnrli still nhtains 
at Ronie irhencrer war hrcaks oitt. Thcrc arc tico c/ates 
of ivar, closed hi/ a httuclred hars, f/iiarded hi/ Jaiiits. 
Ilerc, when thc senatc has decidcd 011 ivar, the Consitl 
in his appointed f/arh oprns tJic (jates. and proclainis nar, 
irhile the trunipets hraij. Latinits hidden to pcrforni tJiis 
dntij refused, hitf Juno opened the doors ivith her oicn 

mos erat Hesperio in Latio, quem protinus urbes 
Albanae cohiere sacrum, nunc maxima rerum 
Koma colit, cum prima movent in prooHa Martem, 
sive Getis inferre manu Licrimabile belhnn 
Hyrcanisve Arabisve parant, seu tendere ad Indos 
Auroramque sequi Parthosque reposcere sigria : 606 
sunt geminae 1;elli portao, sic nomine dicunt. 
religione sacrae et saevi formidine Martis: 


centum aerei claudunt vectes aeternaque ferri 
ro1:)ora, nec custos absistit limine lanus. 
lias, ubi certa sedet patribus sententia i^ugnae, 
ipse Quirinali trabea cinctuqiio Gabino 
insignis reserat stridentia limina consul ; 
ipse vocat pugnas, sequitur tum cetera pubes, 






TiiE Templk of Jaxus. (From a c<->in in tlie British Museum ) 

aereaque adsensu conspirant cornua rauco. 
hoc et tum Aeneadis indicere bella Latinus 
more iubebatur tristesque recludere portas. 
abstinuit tactu pater, aversusque refugit 
foeda ministeria. et capcis se condidit umbris. 



tum regina deum caelo delapsa morantes 620 

impulit ipsa manu portas. et eardine verso 
Ijelli ferratos rumpit Saturnia postes. 

623-640. Ausonia ia o)i fiir ; some prepare to scrve onfodl, 
some on horsehack ; soinc polisli tJieii' ireapons and grind 
their axes : fii^e cities forge vew loeapons on the anril, 
hehncfs and shields, hrcastplates and greavcs. llie pJoagh 
and tJie sickle are descrfed. TJie trumpet sounds, tJie 
irarriors seize fJicir arnis and niaJ>-c icadg tJicir Jiorses. 

ardet inexcita Ausonia atcj^ue immolalis ante ; 
pars pedes ire parat camiiis, pars arduus altis 
pulverulentus equis furit ; omnes arma requirunt. 
pars leves clipeos et spicula lucida tergent 626 

arvina pingui, subiguntque in cote secures : 
signaque ferre iuvat sonitusque audire tuljarum. 
quinque adeo magnae positis incudibus urbes 
tela novant, Atina potens Tiburque superbum. 630 
Ardea Crustumerique et turrigerae Antemnae. 
tegmina tuta cavant capitum, flectuntque salignas 
umbonum crates ; alii thoracas aenos 
aut leves ocreas lento ducunt argento ; 
vomeris huc et falcis honos, huc omnis aratri 635 
cessit amor ; recoquunt patrios fornacibus enses. 
classica iamque sonant ; it bello tessera signum. 
hic galeam tectis trepidus rapit : ille frementes 
ad iuga cogit equos ; clij^eumque auroque trilieem 
loricam induitur. fidoqne aceingitur ense. 640 

641-654. Thf poet inrol-es fJie Miises to open Ilelicon, and 
sing of Ji-ings and tJicir ariiiies, and fJic Jirrncs of Jfah/. 
Firsf conies Mczentiiis. fJu .■^cornrr of fJic r/ods. and irifJi 


r. 2 


liim hi.^i fio», hpaiififiil Laii.^^ii.-', ihc sl-ilh'(l rider and 
hiiiifer, iroiihji nf n iiohhr si)-c : <i fhousdiiil iiieii foUoired. 

pandite nunc Helicona, deae, cantnsque movete, 
qui bello exciti reges, quae quemque secutae 
complerint campos acies. quibus Italn iam tum 
floruerit terra alma viris, quibus arserit armis ; 
et meniinistis enim,divae, et memorare potestis ; 645 
ad nos vix tenuis famae perlabitur aura. 
]irimus init l)ellum Tyrrlienis asper ab oris 
contemptor divoni Mezentius agminaque armat. 
filius huic iuxta Lausus, qiio pulclirior alter 
non fuit, excepto Laurentis corpore Turni. G-^o 

Lausus equum domitor debellatorque ferarum 
ducit Agyllina nequiquam ex urbe secutos 
mille viros, dignus, patriis qui laetior esset 
imperiis. et cui ])ater liaud Mezentius esset, 

655-677. Ne.rt coiiies Arentiniis, son 0/ lleiriiles. irlfJi iiis 
rictorious sleecls, his shiehJ-hlazoii a hijdra : his inothcr 
was Rhea fhe prici^tess, and he mis horn affcr fJie .•<laiiiii<i 
of Geri/on. Jle irorc a Jioifs sJ>'iii. and Jiis nieii foiii/Jit 
■irifJi pili-es and spears. 

Tihur scnds th ' hrofJicrs CatiUus aiid Coras. irJio.^^c <Ji<ir<)c 
is lilce fJie desceiit af Cciifaiirs tJiroin/Ji tJie ironds. 

post hos insignem palma per gramina curnnn 
victoresque ostentat equos satus Hercule ]mlcliro 
pulcher Aventinus ; clipeoque insigno iiatei-num 
centum angues cinctamfiue gerit serjientibus Hy- 

dram ; 
collis Aventini silva quem Rhea sacerdos 
fiirtivum ]iartu sul) luminis edidit oras. ri6o 



Hercules. (From a vase-painting. ) 



mixta deo mulier. postquam Laurentia victor 
Geryone exstincto Tirynthius attigit urvn, 
Tyrrhenoque boves in flumine hxvit Hiberas. 
pila manu saevosque gerunt in beHa dolones, 

J- fiy.n 

Centauks. (From a stiitue in tlie Ciipitoline Muscuni, Eome, 
antl vase-iiiiintings.) 

et tereti pugnant mucrone veruque Sabello. 
ipse pedes tegumen torquens imniane leonis, 
terribili impexum saeta, cum dentibus albis 
indutus capiti, sic regia tecta subil)at, 
horridus. Hoiculeoque humeros innexus amictu. 



tum geniini fratres Tiburtia nioenia linquunt, 670 
fratris Tiburti clictam cognomine gentem, 
Catillusque acerque Coras, Argiva iuventus, 
et priniam ante aciem densa inter tela feruntur : 
ceu duo nubigenae cum vertice montis ab alto 674 
descendunt Centauri, Homolen Othrymque nivalem 
linquentes cursu rapido ; dat euntibus ingens 
silva locum, et magno cedunt virgulta fragore. 

678-705. FroDi. Pmeneste and cther foiciis conies Caectihis, 
son of Viilcan, wifh ]iis i'iistic troop. Theij hare no 
sJiiehls, no chariots, but use slinys and da)is, and uear 
wolf-skin caps ; one foot is hare, the otJwr in a sJioe. 
Xepfune's so)i, 3fessapus, wJi0))i fire and sfeel caiuiof 
Juwni, leads an itnwaiiilce foire fivm FescoDiiiun and 
oiJur foiriis. As tJieij inarcJi fJieij siiiff of fJieir i^-iiKj, lil<:e 
swans singiiKj as fJiei/ fly f)'Oi)i pasfiire. Ko »ian would 
tJiinJc fJieina regular ariiiij, tJietj are lil:e u cloud ofoxoies 
flijing to fhf sho)e. 

nec Praenestinae fundator defuit urbis, 
Vulcano genitum pecora inter agrestia regem 
inventumque focis omnis quem credidit aetas, O80 
Caeculus. himc legio hite comitatur agrestis, 
quique altum Praeneste viri, quique arva Gabinae 
lunonis gelidumque Anienem et roscida rivis 
Hernica saxa cohmt, quos dives Anagnia pascit, 
quos, Amasene pater. non illis omnibus aima, 685 
nec cHpei currusve sonant ; pars maxima glandes 
Hventis phimlji spargit ; pars spicula gestat 
bina manu, fulvosque hipi de pelle galeros 
tegmen habent capiti ; vestigia nuda sinistri 
instituere pedis, crudus tegit altera pero, (190 


at Messapus, eqiuuu domitor. Neptunia proles, 

quem neque fas igni cuiquam nec sternere lerro, 

iam pridem resides populos desuetaque bello 

agmina in arma vocat subito, ferrumque retractat. 

hi Fescenninas acies Aequosque Faliscos, 695 

hi Soractis habent arces Flaviniaque arva, 

et Cimini ciun moute lacum hicosqiie Cai^enos. 

ibant aequati numero, regemque canel)aut : 

ceu quondam nivei liquida iuter luibila cycui 

cum sese e pastu referunt et louga cauoros 700 

daut per colla modos : sonat auinis et Asia longe 

pulsa pahis. 

nec quisquam aeratas acies ex agmiue tanto 

misceri putet, aeriam sed gurgite al) allo 

urgueri voluorum raucarum ud litoni uubom. 705 

706-722. Clausns—from irJioni is spnmg tJie Claiidian 
yens —coities iiext, at the head 0/ a laiye force, hiiiiself 
eqiial to a lanje force : he uris of Sabine hloocL His iiien 
are froin nianij toivns bij the Tiber, the Faharis and the 
Allia. Theij are as tnany as the iraves iii the Lihjaii sea 
in tointer, or as the ears of corii in Heriniis' 2>htin or 
Lycia. The eaiih is terrified at the trainp oftheirfit. 

ecce, Sabinorum prisco de sanguine magniun 
agmen agens Clausus, magnique ipse agminis instar, 
Chxudia nunc a quo diffunditur et tribus et gens 
per Latium, postquam in partem data Roma Sabinis. 
una ingens Amiterna cohors priscique Quiiites, 710 
Ereti mauus omuis oliviferaeque Mutuscae ; 
qui Nomentum urbem, qui Kosea rura Velini, 
qui Tetricae horrentis rupes montemque Severum 
Casperiamque cohmtForulosque et flumenHimenae, 


(]ui Tiberim Fabarimque bibunt, quos frigida misit 
Xursia, et Hortinae classes populique Latini ; 716 
quosque secans infaustum interluit Allia nonien ; 
quam multi Libyco volvuntur marmore fluctus, 
saevus ubi Orion hibernis conditur undis ; 
vel cum sole novo densae torrentur aristae, 720 

aut Hermi campo, aut Lyciae flaventibus arvis. 
scuta sonant, pulsuque pedum eonterrita tellus. 

723-760. Halaeitiis, iiatio-al eiiemij of the Trojans, lea(h 
a force from Attriincitm, Sklicinitm, Cales, and Oscait 
toirns, javelins their iceapons, targets their defence. 
Oebalus, soii of a Nijmph, hrings men from Sarrastae, 
Rttfrae, and other toicns. Tliey have hehnets of cork, 
shields and sicords ofbronze. Froin Nersae comes Ufens, 
ichose hardi/ foUotcers icork- armed in the fields, and live 
on plunder. Unibro, S( nt hj king Archippus, comes from 
Marrtirittm of the Mursi : a snake-charmer tras he, hiif 
his skill cotdd not sare Jtim from a Trojan irouitd. Grores 
and Jakes icept for Jiim. 

hinc Agamemnonius, Troiani nominis hostis, 
curru iungit Halaesus equos, Turnoque feroces 
niille rapit populos, vertunt felicia Baccho 725 

Massica qui rastris. et quos de collibus altis 
Aurunci misere patres Sidicinaque iuxta 
aequora, quique Cales linquunt, amnisque vadosi 
accohi, Yolturni, pariterque Saticulus asper 
Oscorumque manus. teretes sunt aclydes illis 7?,o 
tela ; sed haec lento mos est aptare flagello. 
haevas cetra tegit, falcati comminus enses. 
nec tu carminibus nostris indictus abibis, 
Oebale, quem generasse Telon Sebethide nympha 
fertur, Teleboum Capreas cum regna teneret, 735 


iam senior ; patriis sed non et filius arvis 

conteutus late iam tum dicione premebat 

Sarrastes populos et quae rigat aequora Sarnus, 

(j[uique Rufras Batulumque tenent, atque arva 


et quos maliferae despectant moenia Abellae. 740 

Teutonico ritu soliti torquere cateias ; 

tegmina quis capilum raptus de subere cortex, 

aerataeque micant peltae, micat aereus ensis. 

et te montosae misere in proelia Nersae, 

Ufens, insignem fama et feliciljus armis ; 745 

liorrida praecipue cui gens, adsuetaque multo 

venatu nemorum, duris Aequicula glebis. 

armati terram exercent. semperque recentes 

convectare iuvat praedas et vivere rapto, 

quin et Marruvia venit de gente sacerdos, 750 

frondo suiier galeam et felici comptus oliva. 

Archippi regis missu, fortissimus Umbro. 

vipereo generi et graviter spirantibus hydris 

spargere qui somnos cantuque manuque solebat, 

mulcebatque iras et morsus arte levabat. 755 

sed non Dardaniae medicari cuspidis ictum 

evaluit, neque eum iuvere in vuhiera cantus 

somuiferi et Marsis (juaesitae moutibus herbae. 

te nemus Augitiae, vitrea te Fucinus uuda, 

te liquidi flevere lacus. 7^^ 

761-782. Aricla sencU VirhiHS,chiI(J of Hippohitus. Hippo- 
Ii/fns, so riins tlie sfori/, slai)i bi/ }iis sfep-niofhei''s (jnile, 
ims brought hack to life hij Vaioii^s art ainl Diaiia. Buf 
Jiipiter. in inath th<it (1 mortal shoiiJd rise froiii the shades, . 
struck AescHlapins ihad. Diaiia hid Hippotijtiis iii the 



cctre of the yijmph Eyeria, and hls nanie uaa chauijnl to 
Virhitis. Ilis soii, althoiijh horses had JciUed IIii'poli/tus, 
u-eiit with horses aiid chariot to the battle. 

ibat et Hippolyti proles pulcherrima bello 
Virbius. insignem quem mater Aricia misit, 
eductum Egeriae luci< umentia circum 

Death of Hippolttus. (From a bas-reliefon a sarcopliagus.) 

litora, pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Dianae. 
namque ferunt fama Hippolytum, postquam arte 
novercae 765 

occiderit patriasque explerit sanguine poenas 
turbatis distractus equis, ad sidera rursus 
aetheria et superas caeli venisse sub auras, 


Paeoniis revocatum lierl)is ot aniore Dianae. 

tiun pater omnipotens, alitj[uem indignatus ab umbris 

mortalem infernis ad lumina surgere vitae, 771 

ipse rcpertorem medicinae talis et artis 

fulmine Phoebigenani 8tygias detrusit ad undas. 

at Trivia Hippolytum secretis alma recondit 

sedibus, et nymphae Egeriae nemorique relegat, 775 

solus ubi in silvis Italis ignobilis aevum 

exigeret, versoque ubi nomine Virbius esset. 

unde etiam templo Triviae lucisque sacratis 

cornipedes arcentur equi, quod litore currum 

et iuvenem monstris pavidi effudere marinis. 780 

filius ardentes haud setius aequore cainpi 

exercebat equos curruque in bella ruebat. 

7S3-802. Next comes TiiniKK, /oicerliii/ (ibore the resf ; 
Chiniaera was the hlazon on his hehiief, hhiziiKj niore 
fiercehj fhe iiiore a hattle riKjes. On Jiis shiehl tros 
a f/oMen lo, and Argus her keeper, and Inachiis h' r 
father. Behind liini foUoics a clottd of infaitfri/, Ari/ive, 
Rntitlian, and others. 

ipse inter primos praestanti corpore Turnus 

vertitur arma tenens, et toto vertice supra est. 

cui triplici crinita iuba galea alta Chimaeram 785 

sustinet, Aetnaeos efflantem fuucibus igues, 

tam magis illa fremens et tristibus effera flammis, 

quam magis effuso crudescunt sanguino pugnae. 

at levem clipeum sublatis cornibus lo 

auro insignibat, ium saetis obsita, iam bos, 790 

argumentum ingens, et custos virginis Argus, 

caelataque amnen; fundens jiater Inuclius urna. 



insequitur niml)us iieditum, clipealaque totis 
agmiiia densentur campis. Argivaque pubes 
Aiiruncaeque manus, Eutuli veteresque Sicani 795 
et Sacranae acies et picti scuta Laliici ; 
qui saltus, Tiberine, tuos sacrumque Xiniiici 
litus arant, Eutuloscpie exercent vomere colles 
Circaeumque iugum, cjuis luppiter Anxurus ai*vis 
praesidet, et viridi gaudeus Feronia luco ; 800 

cpia Saturae iacet atra palus, gelidusque per imas 
quaerit iter valles atque in mare conditur Ufens. 

fiGHT wiTii A.MAzo.Ns. (Fiom a vase-painting.) 

803-817. Last comes CamiUa, ofYolscian raci', at the head 
of n column of car.jJn/; n wnrrior maid she, iinused 
to the distaff, hnt iniired to hatile ; swifter than the vind, 
she could ftij over ears of corn without harmiiig ihem, 
and skim the sea''^ sutface wiihfeei vof ivet. AU niarifUed 
at her as she passed. at her 2>nrple attire, the golden 
hrooch in her ha/r, her qitirer andjurelin. 

hos sui^er advenit Volsca de gente Camilla, 

agmen agens equitum et florentes aei-e catervas. 


Ijellatiix, non illa culo calatliisve Minervae 805 

femineas adsueta manus, sed proelia vii-go 
dura pati cursuque pedum praevertere ventos. 
illa vel intactae segetis per summa volaret 
gramina, nee teneras cursu laesisset aristas ; 
vel mare per medium fiuctu suspensa tumenti 810 
ferret iter, celeres nec tingueret aequore plantas. 
illam omnis tectis agrisque effusa iuventus 
turbaque miratur matrum et prospectat euntem, 
attonitis inhians animis, ut regius ostro 
velet honos leves humeros, ut fibula crinem 815 

auro internectat, Lyciam ut gerat ipsa pharetram 
et pastoralem praefixa cuspide myrtum. 

A QuivER. (Fromagcm.) 



I. Tti quoque : as well as Palinurus the pilot, and Misenus 
the trumpeter, whose deaths are described in vi. 337-83, 
and 170-4. 

nostris : i. c. Italian, a touch of national feeling. 

3. et nunc, ' even now tliy glory liaunts thy resting- 
place.' senat combines tlie ideas of liauntingand guarding; 
sedem not unfrequently used for toml). Cf. vi. 152. 

ossaque nomeu . . . signat, ' tlie name marks thy bones'; 
i. e. tlie namt' of tlie town and promontory takes tlie phice 
of an epitaph on a tomb. 

4. si qua est ea gloria, ' if there be any glory in that.' 
qiia. for qiiid, by tlie usual attraetion to the gender of the 
following noun. The expression is an example of litotes, 
a depreciatory way of speaking, and = <?»«'/ esf magna gloria. 

5. pius: the usual epithet of Aeneas; it imijlies goodness 
either to tlie gods or to relatives. 

exsequiis: i.e. of Caieta. Ablative absolute ; so aggere 
in ]. 6. 

6. aggere composito tujnuli, ' after raising the mound of 
the tomli.' Cf. iii. 63 arigeritxr tumulo tellus. 

quierimt : notice tlie perfeet after postquam, where 
English requires the pluperfect. 

7. tendit iter velis : cf. vi. 240 tendere iter penn/s; velis 
= vehrum ope, by t]ie ]ie]p of sai]s ; instrumenta] ab]ative. 

8. adspirant aurae in noctem, ' a wind lilows fair f;ir into 
the night.' This is better than to take m= ' at the approach 
of night.' Notice the double al]iteration of the line. 

g. *And the sea trembled with her silver ]ight ' Dryden). 
10. raduntur : ancient sailors always hugged the land as 
mucli as possible. 

Circaeae . . . litora terrae : i. e. the shore of tlie promon- 



toiy Circeii. Homer spoko of Circe's land as an island, 
Aoaca, as Vorgil does also in iii. 386. Probably tho Circoian 
prouiontory was in proliistoric days an island. 

11. dives : a roforonco to tlic boauty of hor ])alace, which 
Homor (Orf. x) dcscribcs as 'fair lialls, buiUlcd of polishcd 

inaccessos : unaj^pruachable to such as did not wish to 
))c turncd into beasts by Circc's onchantments. 

filia : i.o. Circe. 

lucos : in Homcr the halls stand ' in tho forest glades, 
in a jihico Avith wido j)rospcct.' 

12. resonat : lici'o ti'ansitivc ' makes to riug,' a use only 
found in Silius' imitation of this line. Homer — ' There is 
0110 within tliat fares tu and fro lieforc a niighty wcb, sing- 
ing a sweet song, so that all the iloor of the hall makcs echo' 
(Butchcr and Lang). 

tectis : ablative of place without a i^reposition. 

13. nocturna in lumina, ' to light tho night.' 

14. argruto, ' shrill ' or 'whirring.' 

pectiue : the pecten was a comb-like instrument used in 
the horizontal loom {telae) to run the threads of tlic web 
close together, by inserting in them its tecth, and pressing 
tlie comb up and down 1 Rich). 

15. exaudiri: historic infiiutive, expressing mere occur- 
rcnce of aii action without markiiig the time. It is only 
found iii the preseiit tcnse. Cf. 1. 18. 

gemitus iraeque, ' the angiy roaring of lions.' This is 
an instancc of heudiadys (one by two\ in which two words 
arc coordinatcd, not subordinated, i.e. ono qualifying tho 
otlicr. Cf. paterae ct uuruni^patcrae aureae. In Homer the 
lions and wolves are tame, and fawn upon newcomers, while 
the mcn have bccome swine and live in sties. 

16. Notico tlio genitivcs in -uni, thc prose -ium beiug 
mctrically impossible iii hexametcr vcrsc. 

rudentum: hero — ' roaring ' ; generally uscd of asses' 

17. praesepibus, ' cagcs ' : iu 1. 275 - Vstalls in a stable.' 

18. formae magnorum . . . luporum, ' tlie shapes of 
moiistrous wolves ' ; a pciiiihrase intendcd to give a notion 
of undefined sizc and horror, and to liint that thcy aro 
only wolves externally. 

19-20. ' Whom from human likeness thc crucl goddcss 
witli pcwerful hcrbs had clad in tlie semblance and form of 

ex: like the Gieuk use of oi^t/. 


20. induerat . . . in : thc same construction oecurs in Gcor. 
i. 188 cum se nu:c plarima silvis induet inflortm. More common 
is the use of ablative and accusative, or accusative and 
dative. Cf. 1. 668. 

21. 'Lest the Trojans should sufifer such monstrous trans- 
formation.' monstrum, of anything out of the ordinarycourse 
of nature. Cf. iii. 583, of the noise of a volcano. Dryden 
takes it wrongly of hearing the beasts. 

pii explains tlie intervention of Neptune. Cf. iii. 

22. neu : used to join a negative purpose or command to 
a preceding sentence of similar kind. 

23. Neptnnus : he liad taken care of the Trojans at sea 
since Venus had implored his aid in Bk. v. 

secundis : a ' foUowing,' hence a favouring breeze. 

24. fu^am : a quick passage. 

vada fervida : a stormy sea such as breaks against 
a promontory, ' breakers.' 

25. rubescebat radiis, ' began to bhish beneath the rays.' 

' The sea was reddening with the dawn : 
The queen of morn on high 
Was seen in rosy chariot drawn 
Against a saffron sky.* — (Conington.) 

26. Bentley and others objected to the juxtaposition of 
the two colours ' rosy ' and ' saffron,' and croceis and variis 
have been suggested for roseis. There is no need of any 
cliange. Homer makes Dawn ' rosy-fingei'ed ' and ' with 

bigis : in vi. 535 Aurora is represented with a four- 
horsed chariot. 

27. posuere: intransitive use 'fell' ; or se may be supplied. 
Notice the inverted cum with tlie indicative =- et fum. 

28. lento, ' sluggish ' : a word of wide scope. Originally 
it means 'fiexible,' ' tough.' From this come its various 
secondary meanings of ' tenacious,' e.g. lentius risco='more 
holding than birdlime' ; 'sluggish,' as here ; ' tedious,' e.g. 
negotiian l. ; 'cold,' ' iiidiSerent,' e.g. l. pectus. The allitera- 
tion and rhythm ai'e meant to express the difficulty of 
rowing in the sluggish sea. 

29. hic: temporal ' then.' ex aequore : to be taken with 

lucum : the country is still well wooded. 

30. inter, ' in the midst of.' 

F 2 


Notice tlie position of tlie i)r».'i)<)bitiuu after ils case. 
Tliis is called Auastroplie. 

fluvio . . . amoeno : ablative of description : ainovmui is 
tlie usual ■\vord to descriljc beautiful scenery. 
Tiberinus : father Tiber, tlie river-god. 
31. flavus: tlie ordinary epithet of tho saud-hiden waters 
of the Tiber. Cf. ix. 816. 

33 supra : this is the ouly liue in Vergil where tlie u of 
sujJia is short. 

33. alveo : tlie word scans as two syllables by .synizesis, 
the contraction of two vowels into one sound. Cf. atired, 
ariete, quodd. This same synizesis occurs Gvor. ii. 453. 

34. luco, ' in the grove.' For tlie ablative cf. 1. 12. 

35. flectere : infinitive after iiuperat, instead of tlie prose 
construction witli ut aud the subjunctive ; in Cicero the 
infinitive is only iised with passive or deponent verbs. 

sociis is dative after imjwraf, ferrae after adrcrtere. 

36. laetus : adj. =English adverb, as with invitiis, &c. 
What case is fluvio, and wliy? 

opaco : because tliere was a wood on either bank. 
Aeneas iuid been warned by his lost wife Creusa tliat he 
would conie to Italy and the Lydian Tiber, wliere he would 
lind a kingdom and a royal Ijride. Cf. ii. 781 sqq. 

37. Hero begins the secoud part of Vergil's work, and he 
puts it, as he had done the first, under tlie protection of the 

Erato, strictly the Muse of Love, is liere used for 
'Muse ' geuerally. but there is also a roference to the rivalry 
of Aeneas and Turnus for the liand of Lavinia. 

tempora rerum : probably ' the circumstanees of the 
times,' i.e. =quae illo tempore rerum conditio : others take it to 
moau ' the times or seasons of what happened.' 

38. fuerit : indirect question i\i'trr exjJediam. 

advena: here an adjective with cxercifus, 'the straugcr 

39. cum : this is the temporal use of cum exprossiug time 
ouly ; tum, or an equivaleut, is nearly always found in the 
principal clause ; tlie mood is the indieative. 

appulit = ' put in ' : navcs may be supplied. 

40. primae . . . exordia pugnae : a Vergilian reliuement 
of language for priina cxordia pugnac. 

41. mone, ' inspire,' with a uotion of reminding. 

42. actosque animis in funera reges, ' aud kings drivon 
by valour to deatli.' The reges aro Turnus, Mczentius, aml 
Latinus, of whoni the tirst two were killed in the war. 


Notice the plural r>{ animux^' courage, spirit.' 
fanera : either to meet or deal death, but with a 
sti-onger reference to tlie former, 

43. Tyrrhenam(iue manum : a reference to the story of 
Mezentius ; see Index of Proper Names. 

totam : an exaggeration ; the war did not affect any 
tribe bej'ond the frontiers of Etniria and Latium. 
sub arma= ' to arms.' 

44. maior, &c.. 'agreater line of deeds rises before me,' 
a Vergilian refinement for 'a line of greater deeds.' The 
theme is to change from the wanderings of Aeneas to the 
fight for mastery. For maior . . . mains see 1. 386. 

45. moveo, ' essay.* Cf 1. 641. 

Latinus : the eponymous hcro of the Latin i-ace. 
According to Hesiod lie was son of Ul)'sses and Circe, hiter 
he received the parentage assigned him Jiere. Another 
legend (Benoist) says that he disappeared during a fight 
witli Mezentius. and is a symbol of the Latin struggle 
against Etruria. His woi-ship had its liead quarters at 
Lavinium and lie became Juppiter Latiaris. 

46. iam senior, • waxing old,' the common use of the 
comparative implying 'somewhat' rather than ' more.' 
Cf. 1. 736. 

47. Faunus is here the rustic god, but in viii. 314 the 
Fauns and Nyniphs are spoken of as the Italian aborigines 
civilized by Saturnus. 

Laurente : strictly \ised of the town of Laurentum, but 
used by Vergil as = Latin. Cf. 1. 650. Witli genitmn supply 
esse ; accusative and infinitive after accipimus. 

48. For the tale of Picus see 1. 189. Supply erat witli 

49. refert, 'clainis.' Again supply auxiliary with aMcfor. 

50. fato divom, • the gods' decree': fatum {fan) — 'thc. 
spolven word.' 

proles virilis does little more than repeat Jilitis, but 
emphasizes the fact that there was no lieir, and succession 
must go in tlie female line. 

51. nulla fuit, • was no more,' at the time of tlie Trojans' 

primaque : the que practical]y = (/H(^pe c^uae, ' since.' 

52. sola.=^u)>ica, ' only.' Notice the alliteration of .9. 
sedes is not a merc repetition of domum, but implies 

also the wealth and kingdom of Latinus. 

servabat combines the ideas of staying at honie, and 
preserving the family as its heiress. 


filia : i.o. Lavinia. 
53. ' Kipi: for a liusband, of fuU ycars for marriagc' Tlic 
firwt lialf of tho linc is repeatecl in another shape hy tlie 

55. ante : a plconastic use vvith a superlative. 

56. potens : i. c. his long line of ancestry was much in 
liis favour as a suitor. 

reg^ia coniiinx : i. o. Amata, wifo of Latinus. 

57. ' Was cager with wondrous zeal to liave unitcd to licr 
as son-in-huv.' properahat ha.s the construction of studere : 
see a similar use l. 264. With adiumji supply sihi. 

58. deum : tliis gcnitive is found (i) in Grcck nouns, e.g. 
draclnnnm ; (2) proper names, c.g. jirtnaM?» ; (3) compounds 
of colo and gigno, e. g. terrigenum, caelicolmn ; (4) weights and 
measures, 0. g. nwnmum, talentum ; (5) distributives, e. g. 
himim ; (6) vir, Uberi, socius, cluo, Jluvius, cquus, and one 
adjective, magnanimus. 

The form in -om, e. g. divom, 1. 50, is jirobably oklcr and 
not contracted. 

59. Noticc medio with the genitive ; more often this 
adjeetivo, and such others as summui, extremus, &c., are used 
in agrecmcnt with a noun. 

penetralibus : Vcrgil had in mind the Roman impluvium 
(tlio unroofcd part of the atrium), in which we often licar 
of trees being planted : in ii. 513 thore was a laurel in 
the same i^osition in Priam's ]ialace. 

60. Vergil speaks in almost the same words of a sacred 
cypress, ii. 714 5. Trees were often considcred holy both 
in Palcstino and more wostern countries. Liu-an gives 
a dcsci-iption of a sacred grovo, the tiecs of wliich were 
.sanctified by liuman sacrifices. 

comam (accusativo of rcspect) — ' foliage.' 

61. inventam : translate by an infinitive, ' to liave found 
. . . and haIlow(>d.' 

primas : Vorgilian refinement on cum primum. 

62. ferebatur, 'wassaid.' 

Phoetoo : to whoni tho bay was peculiarly sacred. 

63. Iiatirentes: in apjiosition to nomcn. 'Tliort'frnni lic 
gave tho namo Laurontinos to his settlcrs.' For this a])posi- 
tion of singular and ]ilural cf. iii. 18 Aencadasque meo mimen 
de nomine fmgo. This etymology, says Bcnoist, is absurd. 

posuisse : Grook uuofxa OiaOai. 

64. apes : this was, according to Pliny, a portent of evil. 
summum : not a noun, but to be takcn, rathoi' awk- 

wardly, vvith apicem, 1. 66. 


dictu: the so-callocl siipinc iu 11 (reallj- a verbal noun), 
is used ^ i) as a dativo with adjectives such as difficiUs, dnhius, 
and occasionally with nouns, and esse ; (2) as aljlativo with 
adjectives such as dignus, and the expressions/«s, nefas, opus 
est. Vergil uses it only with dictu, factu, relatu, visu, victu. 
Cf. 1. 78. 

66. pedibiis per mutua nexis, ' feet intertwined with 
feet.' per mutua seems to be a Vergilian refinoment on the 
simple adverb mutuo. Nettleship suggests that as mutua is 
used advorbiallv in Lucretius, perm,utua may be a lost adjec- 
tive used similarly. 

67. ramo: in prose ex or dh are much commoner than the 
simple ablativo witli X)cnderc. 

68. ceruimus : i. e. see with the prophotic eye, 'descry.' 
Xotice the eommon use of plural for singular with ist 
person ; ho noster=meus, but never rester=t>ii(s. 

In Livy wo find (xxiv. 10) a swarm of bees in the forum 
a sign of a foreign invasion. 

69. partes . . . easdem : the same as the bees. i. e. the town of 
Latinus, so in I. 70 pariibus ex i. must imply that the bees 
came from the sea, as Aeneas had done. 

70. dominarier = dominari, an arcliaic form of tho infinitive. 
arce : ablative of place without a preposition. Cf. I. 12. 

71. adolet, ' lights.' The iises of this verb aro peculiar. 
Originally ^ * to inci"ease,' from which comes tlie meaning 
' to honour' especially by sacrifice, hence ' to offer,' and 
finally ' to burn.' 

castis : fitting for a sacrifice. 

altaria: strictly an altare is a high altar dedicated 
to the gods above ; ara, a low altar, on which sacrifice was 
offered to the gods of the lower world ; but the two words 
are often synonymous. 

72. Instead of et the old reading was ut= ' just as.' 

73. visa : supply esf, ' was seen.' 

nefas : a parenthesis, '0 horror !' Cf. viii. 688. 

74. oruatum is not the subject of cremari, but the aceusa- 
tive after a passive verb, as are also comas and coronam in the 
noxt line. For this construction see Appendix. 

75. The double accensa is used instead of the double que. 
' Her royal locks ablaze, ablaze hcr crown.' That the crown 
was the royal and not the sacrificial crown is proved by the 
fact that it was set with gems instead of being mei-ely inter- 
woven with fillets and leaves. 

76-7. ' Then she was wn-apped in smoke and yellow flame, 
and scattered fire tliroutjhout tlie whole palace.' Tho lan- 


guage is arf ifK-i.-il, finuiiln hoiim iiistpad d' tlu- iiattiral 

76. fulvo : as a rule tliis word is applied to auimals aud 

77. involvi : not historic infinitivo, but dependingon w.w, 
1. 73 ; so Rpanjere. 

Vulcanum : notice the use of tlic god's name for his 
work or the olement over which he presides. So Ceres is 
often uscd for * corn,' Venm for ' love,' Mars for ' battle,' 
luppiter for 'sky,' Xeptunxs for 'sca.' 

tectis : for abh\tive soe 1. 12. 

78. id vero, ' tliat in trutli,' i. e. above all other signs. 
visu: cf. 1. 64, note. 

ferri, 'was noisod abroad ' : historic infinitivo. Cf. 1. 15. 

79. Notice alliteration of/. 

canebant, 'tlioy (the seers) prophesied.' As oracles 
wero usually chanted, and in hexameter verse, the word 
canere came to mean ' prophesy.' So we find cnrmina = 
oracles, Bk. iii. 1. 445. 

80. ipsam : cini>liatic by position, and <ip]ioso(l {<< popnlo. 
Cfreek would havo usod ^iv and 5«. 

portendere: thoie is no grammatical subjoct to this, 
but one is oasily understood out of the context, i.e. the wide 
spreading of tho fire. 

populo: dativo of disadvantage. 
8r. soUicitus, ' troubled,' iised as a participle. 

82. fatidici g-enitoris, ' liis prophetic sire,' in apposition 
to Fauni. 

83. Albunea. Thero has Iieen much discussion as to wliat 
and wliore All)unea was. Tho Sibyl at Tibur bore tliis 
name, and it is natural to supjiose that Vergil refors to 
a sulphurous spring in a grove noar Tibur. This spring 
(Albula) forms a cascado, which suits sonat in \. 84. It is 
objectod that Tibur was thirty miles distant, so that some 
take Albunea to bo tho sulpliurous spriiig Altieri on tlie 
road to Ardoa. Probably tho formor view is tho bottor. At 
all events Albunoa must bc a grovo as woll as a stroam, 
otherwiso nemorum quae maxima is uiiintolligiblo. Translate, 
' He consults tho groves at tlio foot of lofty Albunea, which, 
mightiest of woods, resounds with its holy fountain and in 
the shado broathos forth a cruol incphitic gas.' 

84. mephitim : sometimes pei'Sonified as tho goddess who 
averted such exhalations. For the form of acctisative cf. 
sitis, tussls, ris, &c. 

85. hinc : witli petunt, ' seek answors from this source." 


86. in dubiis, 'in timo of dfinbt ' ; ncuttr. 

dona : i. e. sacrifices, explained by caoRarum ovium. 

87. tulit : notice the tense ; when tlie action of the 
•lopendent clause precedes that of tlie principal clause, its 
verbs niust be put in one of tlie completed tenses, e. g. : 

(i) Present time ; cum ceci(Ht,fleo = when he falls, I weep ; 

(2) Past time ; cum ceciderat,Jleham = whcn iie feli, I used 

to weep ; 

(3) Future time ; cum renerif,abiho = when lie comes, I 

sliall go. 

88. incubuit : the technical term for this method of 
divination, which in Greek was called ifKoiix-qcns : tlie 
searcher slept on the skins of the slain victims and received 
divine revelation in di-eams. 

89. ' Many phantoms he beholds flittim,' in wondrous 
wise.' It is impossible to retain in Englisli the double 
alliteration. Yergil has adapted this line from Lueretius iv. 
127-8. A Roman poet was always quite willing to Ijorrow 
from a predecessor, and Vergil drew largely on Ennius and 
Lucretius, while his successors, espeeially Valerius Flaceus, 
took much from him. 

gr. Acheronta : here neither the river nor Hell, but used 
vaguely of the powers of the lower woi'ld, the infernal gods, 
and the shades. 

imis . . . Avernis recalls MiIton's ' The deep tract of 
Hell.' For ablative cf. I. 12. 

92. et tum, ' then too,' i. e. on this occasion as others had 
done at otlier times of dnubt. 

ipse : in person, not by deputy. 

93. rite : cf. 1. 5. 

bidentes : so called, according to Heniy, because sliee]i 
in their second year have two large second teeth among the 
small milk teeth. What other wnrd hidins is there, and of 
what gender? 

94-5. tergo stratisque . . . velleribus : que does not add 
anything new, but is practieally cquivalent to i. e. 'their 
hides, a fleecy couch.' 

95. reddita : tlie re frequently like the Greek airo- in dwo- 
towaC) implies ' as was due,' 'as might have been expected.' 
80 here Latinus had complied with the proper ritual, and 
an answer was due to liim. 

96. The scansion of connbiis is doublful. Probablj^ the u is 
to be considered long only in arsis, e. g. iii. 319 con\iihia | 
nenafi, in thcsis, as here, short, con>(bh's. Otherswould prefer 
to scan the word always as a trisyllable cdmihus, by synizesis, 


as alve^), 1. 33. Tlie 1« is loiig in iifiho, but sIkh-I in its coni- 
pounds, e.g. iwonuha, 1. 319. Thc word licit' is l)ost taken as 
eoncrete = ' husbands/ and as dative, but it may also = 
'marriage,' and then is ablative. 

97. neu: cf. 1. 22. 

paratis, ' set on foot,' referring to the understanding 
tliat Lavinia should wed Turnus. Others take it = 'ready to 
iiand,' which gives a good opposition to venient. 

98. exterui: opposcd to Latinis, 1. 96. 
venient : v. I. vcniunt. 

generi : ])hiral for singular ; tlie god sjieaks generally, 
not of an individual. 

sanguine, ' thcir offspring/ wliicli by marriage would 
also becomc that of Latinus. 

99. in astra. This prediction does not refcr to thc deifica- 
tion of Caesar and his descendants, but to thc glory wliich is 
to attend thc race of Aeneas, i. e. the Romans generally. 

ferant: linal subjunctive = destined to raise. There is 
another reading/<;re)(<, vifhicli will agi'ec closely with videhunt, 
1. loi. But such variety of tense Vergil loved. 

nepotes : the Caosars, cspecially Augustus. 

100. sub pedibns : the idea is that of the conqueror placing 
liis foot on the neck of the conqucred. Tho expression occurs 
even in prose (Livy xxxiv. 32). 

utrumque : i. e. East aud West. 

recurrens = as lie travcls back and forth. 
loi. Oceanum : tho river that ran round tlie world. 

vertique regi<iue = ' movo at their bidding.' rerd com- 
bines tlie ideas of the natural motion of the earth, and of 
the comidete control exercised over it by the nepotes. 

103. nocte : ablativo of time. 
ipse suo : jileonasm. 

premit ore : a mixture of the plirases premere os = ' to 
close the mouth,' and premere pedore = 'to keep a secret in the 

104. sed : et is read by sonie editors, but needlcssly. 
Vergil has much compressed (Bracliylogy") his scntonces, 
whicli in full might have run : ' L. did not keep the socrot, 
iior did Rumour, but the lattor, far from koeping it, publishod 
it abroad.' 

105. cum : puroly temporal, refcrring to tlic iain of 1. 104. 
Cf. 1. 39, note. 

Iiaomedontia = Trojan. More often tlic word is used as 
a torni of rcproach with rcforonce to th(> doulilc brcacli of 
faith of Luomeclon, wlio cheated Neptuno of his roward for 


Ijuilding tho -svalls of Troy, and Heixules for saving Hesione 
from a sea-mniister. 

io6. religravit : singular after a collective noun. 
Notice ab = 'to': in prose ad is pi-eferred to ah; ' in' 
also occurs. 

109. adorea liba= ' cakes of meal.' Ador was an old word 
for corn. Liha, Hat cakes of flour, lioney and oil, especially 
used in tlie worship of the Penates. 

iio. subiciunt epulis = ' place beneath the food cakes of 
nieal,' i. e. in English idiom = place their food on cakes of 
meal. "SVhat case is epidis ? 

ille = ' yonder,' i. e. on high. v. 1. ipse. 
inonebat^'inspired,' so that the oracle might be ful- 

111. Cereale solum = 'the cereal floor' (Kennedy). A 
somewhat liigh-flown expression for the cakes used as 
l^hites. The next four lines are also an obvious atteini^t to 
confer dignity on a simple event. 

augrent = oneran^, ' heap.' 

solum is used of that on which anything rests. So we 
find it of tlie sole of the foot, of the sea beneath a ship, of 
the sky in which the stars are set, &c. 

112. aliis : neuter = ceto7s, * everything else.' Ablative 

113. Cererem : i. e. the thin cakes. For this use of Ceres 
cf. 1. 77, note. 

penuria . . . edendi=j3. cihi, 'scarcity of food.' edendi is 
equivalent to a future passive participle. 

114-5. 'And outrage with hand and darlng jaws the 
circle of fate-fraught crust, nor spare the flat squares.' 

violare : the cakes are looked upon as sacred since they 

crustum : rare form of crusta. 

quadris: across the cake were two lines crossing each 
other at right angles, much like our hot cross buns. 

1x6. '"What! eating up our boards beside"! 

In merry vein lulus cried.'— (Conington.) 

heus : little more tlian ' liulloa ' ! The joke is naturally 
put in a boy's mouth. 

117. necplura: mpp]y dixit. 
adludens = ' in jest.' 
vox= ' saying.' 

118. prima and primam are not qulte similar. ' Tl)at 



saying first brought nn oml to tlieir woes, and even as it 
loft the speaker's moutli Aincas snatched it and, awesti-uck 
witli tlie omen. fhci^kffl iiis words.' 

prima : i. e. iiot till then. 

primamqiie loq.uentis ab ore = ut in-imvm exiit ab ore, ' as 
soon as it left his mouth.' 

119. eripuit = eagerly seized the omen. 
numine = ow/ne ; heaven's will as set forth in tho boy's 

pressit : the meaning of this is doubtful. Two alterna- 
tives are possible, (i) Checked liis son froin saying moro lest 
lie should speak words of evil omen. This does not go well 
with nec plura, whicli seems to iniply that luhis was nofc 
going to speak further. (2)=p. animOj ' reflt-ctcd on the 
words.' This, in addition to the diflficulty of getting it out of 
the Latin, is opposed Ijy tlic following cnniinno, whidi allows 
no time for rctlection. It is better to tako (i). 

121. fidi = 'truc' in tlic double s-ense of romaining faithful 
to tlio forUincs of tlie Trojaiis. and of liaving given (iii. 
147-71 tlie prophccy that tiieir future home was to be in 
Hesperia, wliich now seomod likely to prove true. 

Penates. Tiioy wcre househokl gods belonging strictly 
to ca<h family; but tlic word was also used, as iicre. of tlio 
gods of a particular towii. Tiiore is considcrablo doubt 
wliich gods were Poiiatcs, but it is clcar tliat Jui)piter and 
.Funo, Mincrva and Apollo rankcd among thian, wliile Vesta 
(goddess of the hearth) Avas especially connected with tlicm. 
'Their images were kepfc in the innermost part of a Roman 
house. Tliey are sometimes representod in illustrations as 
old men with veiled heads (see Dictiimary of Antiquities) . 
Tliey were known sometimes as Di minorefi. 

122. hic : tlic adveib. Uaec might have bocn expected 
with domus, as with j)o^rt«. 

genitor. Tliis is an inaccuracy on Vergirs part. The 
prediction concerning tlio cating of the tal>Ies was made 
by Celaeno, one of the Harjiies (iii. 255-7 ; •'^"'^ Holenus 
(iii. 394-5) had dcclarcd thafc fate would find a way out 
of the difficulty. Probably Vergil had not revised this 
passage, while the episode of the Harpios was written 

Notice the position of namciiie, whicli is usnally first in 
a sentencc. It is in the samc ]>laco. x. 614. 

123. repeto - rivie/') memoria. i.e. 'I remember.' 
fatorum arcana: Vergilian rofinement on a. fata- 

secretb of fate. 


124. Celaeno's tlireat raii as folluws : — 

• sed non aiite datam cingetis moenibus urbem 
quam vos dira fames nostraeque iniuria caedis 
ambesas subigat malis absumere mensas.' — Jii. 255-7.^ 

125. accisis^ 'used up' : the verb is chiefly used of felling 

126. txuu is empliatie, •then and not till then.' 
sperare depends ujjon memento: the expi-ession is 

rather cumbrous. 

127. mann, especially when joined with tpse, is intended 
to emphasize the agent. In English it is often left un- 
translated. Cf. 1. 143. 

moliriqne ag^gere tecta='build dwellings and fence 
them round with ramparts.' Thc expression is quite Yer- 
gilian in its compre.-sion. It is given in more detail, 
11. 158-9. The underlying idea of moUri i« that of effort ; cf. 
moUri hipennem — ' wield an axe ' ; m. fuhmn = • hurl the 
thunderbolt' ; so with the nouu moles ; e.g.tantae moUs erut 
= ' so hard a task it was.' 

128. 'This was that hunger whereof he spoke; this at the 
end awaited us to put a bound to our ruin.' 

erat : a rare use of the imperfect to express sudden 
recognition of a purj^ose or fact) that has existed through- 
out. Cf. the common tempus eraf. The use exists in Greek, 
where dpa is often joined witli the imperfect. 

129. ezitiis : a strung word ; tlie plural emphasizes the 
diflerent di.sasters that had befallen them, tlie loss on 
difterent occasions of ships and men. Another reading is 

positura : future participle expressing purpose. 

Many such unfinished lines are found in Vergil. It is 
doubtful whether the poet intended to leave them as they 
stand, or would have completed them, if lie had not died 
with his work unfinished. See Introduction, ii. 

131. With loca and moenia supply sint: haheant = incolant, 
'inhabit.' Subjunctive of indirect question after restigemus. 

132. a = ' starting from.' 

diversa petamus : literally = ' let us seek different 
parts.' Translate ' search on this side and that.' 

133- pateras = ' cups of wine ' ; literally broad flat dishes 
or saucers. 

134. vina reponite mensis, 'set wine again on the tables,' 
i. c. either to renew the meal, or simply as a second course. 
memis, ablative of place. 


135. deiude is to l)o taken witli tho fi)ll<)\viiig vcrl), not with 
tho ))articiple, bnt introducing tho principal sentenco. *So 
he spake, and then wrcatlied . . . .' Cf. ii. 391 'sic fatus 
deinde comantcni . . . induitur.' It was thc Roman custom to 
pray and sacrifice with thc head covcrcd, and in Bk. iii. 
Heienns had hidden Acneas and his descendants sacrifice 
with liair covered with purple garb. 

136. Genium loci : to tlie ancients every spot, hill, 
forost, &c., had its own representativo spirit or god, who 
liad power over mon while in tliat particular spot. So witli 
hunian bcings, whoso Gcnius (e.g. v. 95) frcquently took 
the form of a snake. Altars sometimes l)oar tlio inscription 
(Itiiio LocL Cf. Milton, Lycidas : ' Henceforth thou art tlio 
Genius of the sliore.' The et joins the scntence to the 
preceding, tho -que is co-ordinate with the -que afterpnmaw. 
primam, first in majcsty. 

138. si^ua : tlio stars werc looked upon as living and 
divine. In ii. 154-5 we find Sinon praying to thcir 
inviolable divinity. 

139. Idaean Jove may bc cither Juppiter as worshippcd 
»n Mount Ida in Creto, or on Mount Ida in the Troad, or 
botli may be includod. 

Thc Phrygian Motlier, whom (ii. 788) ho calls 'great 
mother of the gods,' was Cybelc, idcntificd with Rhea, 
goddoss of the earth. Her worship was wild and orgiastic ; 
its hoad quarters were at Pessinus, in Galatia. Her worship 
was brought to Rome during the war with Hannibal. As 
an Asiatic goddess she favoured the Trojans, and in Bk. ix. 
furnished Aeneas with trees for ship building. ex ordiue, 
'in order.' 

140. duplices = '?Mos. Cae?o and JJj-eZjo local ablativos. Venus 
was in heavon, Anchises in Erebus. 

141. hic : of time, ' then.' 
pater : i.e. Juppiter. 

clarus : grammatically applicd to patcr, but rcally going 
wilh caelo, ' in a clcar sky.' Others takc it advorbially = 
' loud.' Tliunder in a clcar sky was a good omen. 

142-3. ' Aclovid blazing with raysof goldcn light with his 
own liand ho sliook and disi)layed in hoaven.' This sooms 
to rofor not to a cloud gilded with tlie sun's rays, but to 
summer lightning ; as thc tliundorbolt was a sign of Jove's 
wrath, so the harmless fiash was of his favour. 

radiis . . . lucis et auro is a hcndiadys (cf. \. 15 ) for • rays 
of golden liglit.' 

For ipse mauu seo 1. 127, notc. 


'But tlirice the Almighty Father theii froiii cloudless 
Heaven on high 
Gavo thunder, showinu therewithal the glory of His sky, 
AU burning with the golden gleani, and shaken by His 
ha nd. ' — (Morris. ) 

T45. advenisse diem : accusative and infinitive after 

debita: cf. 1. 120 = ' destined.' 

condant : for the subjunctive see 1. 99. note. 

146. certatims literally ' in rivalry witli one another' ; 
hence ' eagerly.' 

instaurant, ' renew the feast.' 

omine niag^no: take tliis v:ithlae(i ; this is simpler tluan 
to consider it to be a kind of ablative absolute. 

147. crateras : Greek accusative. Literally = * mixing 
vessels ' ; here ' bowls.' 

vina coronant = 'wreathe with flowers the wine-cups.' 
The Romans wero in tho habit of wreathing their wine-cups 
with garlands at a feast. Homer, however, frequently speaks 
of ' crowning the cups witli drink' in thc sense of filling 
fuH, and Vei-gil may have had tliis idea in liis mind. 

148. lustrabat, ' traversed.' The meanings of his(7-o are : 
(i) to purify by offering ; (2) (as the priest used to walk 
round the person to be purified) to go round or through ; (3) 
to traverse with the eye, to review. 

150. diversi: cf. 1. 132. Sujjply essc with s(agna ; the con- 
struction is accusative and infinitive after some verb of 
learning or telling contained in exploran(. Notice liow the 
pronoun is attracted to the gender of the foUowing noun. 

152. satus Anchisa : i. e. Aeneas. Abhitive of origin. 
ordine ab omni = ' from every rank.' In historical 

times the ambassadors from Rome were usually three in 
number, and of senatorial rank. 

153. oratores = 'siDokesmen.' Old word for ^eya^Ms. 

154. velatos : i. e. in their liands they carried olivc- 
branclies (the tree of peace, sacred to Pallas), wliicli were 
wreatlied with wool, the usual sign of suppliants. Others 
take xehdos — ' shaded with olive boughs.' 

155. Teucris : dative of advantage. 

156. haud mora : a frequent way of translating ' at once.' 
iussi = ' at his bidding.' 

feruntur : practically middle, ' haste along. 

157. ipse : i. e. Aeneas, opposed to his foUowers. Not 
unlike the use of iine (Gk. avros) = ' the master.' 

humili, 'ahallow.' 


158. niolitur: cf. 1. 127, note, 'toilsat tla' bixjt." 

159. castrorum : genitive after iii moiem = ' nttvr tlit.' 
fashion of a camii ' ; w.' also find more ancl de more. 

pinnis : battknii-nts i^supposed to be made of twisted 
bouglis) on tlio top of the ramparts. 

Tlie/ossrt and ufjger-weve two invariablepartsof tlic Roman 
camp. Tlie former was a ditch, nine feet wide and seven 
deep, entirely surrounding the camp ; tho hittor a mound or 
embankment on tlie inside of it, tlie top of which was 
guarded )jy a valUim or fenco of palisades. 

160. emcnsi : active in meaning as being from adeponent. 
Livy (xxi. 30) usos it as passive, ' maiorem partem itineris 
emensam cornant.' 

Ziatinoriun : notice the hypermetric line, Ihe •iim being 
olided beforo the ardiia of 1. 161. This is not uncommon, 
but the elided syllable is usually -que. See Introduction, iv. 

161. Tliere is anotlier reading muros. Vorgil seoms to 
have used subire with dative and accusative indifferently, 
althougli some say subiVe + accusative = 'enter,' and s. + 
dative = 'approach,' 

162. A reference by anticipation to the Campus Martius 
at Kome wliore tho young men took exercise. 

163. exercentiir : praetically roflexive, 'exercise tliem- 
selves.' Notice the plural verb after a collective noun, and 
contrast 1. 106. Tlie plural liere calls attcntion to the in- 
dividuals composing the body of iurenes. 

equis : ablativo of instrumoiit. 

currus : usod of cliariot and horses, the word domitanf 
only applying to the latter. 

164. acres : accusative, = 'poworful,' a word not often 
given to inanimate subjccts. 

lenta = ' tough,' or, possiMy, ' made of fiexible wood.' 

165. cursuque ictuctue lacessunt = 'challengo one another 
to tlie raeo and bnxing.' 

lacessunt : supply ((Uks (diiun. 

ictu: prol) ibly boxing, in wliicli sense icere isoften used ; 
othors take it = ' liurling tho javelin.' These three last 
lines form a parenthesis. 

166. cum refors back to suhihant, 1. 161. Tliis U auothor 
instance of cu>«lemporal with tho indicativo. Cf. 11. 39, 105. 

ad aures with reportat, ' brings news to the agod king's 

167. \Ta.^iiulatiis, ' clad in.' Cf. iii. 595 ' patriis ad Troiam 
missus in armis.' 

168. ille : i. e. tex. 


vocari: infinitive here the less rare passive) after impero. 
Cf. ]. 35- 

169. medins: in the midst of his coiirt. 

avito seems inaecurate. as Yergil I. 61 had said the 
town was first built by Latinus. 

170. STiljliine, 'reared aloft on 100 piUars.' Copied by 
Ovid in his description of the pahice of the sun (Me(. ii. i). 

171. nrbe . . . snmma = in arce, 'the citadel.' Local ab- 
hitive. Cf. 1. 12. 

lianrentis : like arifo ]. 169), an anachronism. 

regla litre is not so much iialace as temple. Conington 
Ijoints out that the fecfum was palace, temple. senate house. 
and museum of Kuman antiquities. 

172. 'Awful with the hallowed groves of their sires." 
silvis et reli^one is a hendiadys in which concrete and 
abstract are strangely joined. Tlie temple was surroxinded 
by a holy wood, for which see 1. 60, note. 

173. primos : used adverbially, 'for the first time.' 
attollere = ' liave borne before them.' 

The fasces were bundles of rods carried before consuls 
and praetors by lictors. Until b. c. 509 they also contained 
an axe. Twelve weie carried before a consul, six before 
a praetor outside, two inside Kome. 

174. omen: a little stronger than ?hos, 'a custom of happy 
omen,' i. e. it would be a bad onien for the reign if it were 
i naugurated elsewliere. 

Notice the scansion of erat, the short syllable being 
allowed to count long by ictus before a pause. Cf. Ecl. i. 38 
'Tityrus hinc aberat. Ipsae . . .' 

cnria: senate house. Vergil attributes customs of liis 
own day to aneient Latium. 

175. hae, 'this': pronoun attracted, as usual, to t}ie 
c{ender of the foUowing noun. 

epnlis : banquets in honour of a god were under the 
contriil of a college called ejmlones. 

ariete : a ram was ofFered, Servius tells us, at the 
entrance of tlie imperial pahice on the Palatine on feast days. 
ariefe must be scanned as a dactyl, i being hardened to j : 
this occurs in ii. 492, and with other words such as 
panelihiis, dbiefe, &e. 

176. perpetnis, • in unbroken line.' i. e. at long tables 
prolonged one after another in a straight line. 

soliti : siipply s"//'. 

considere : opposed to the reclining [accumbere) at the 
triclinium of hitcr davs. 


' All at largc tablcs, in long order sot, 
A rani tlnir ofiforing, and a ram tlioir moat.' — (Drydon.) 

177. Notice tlio caesura in tho fourth foot combinod, a.s 
often, with elision immodiately before it. See Intro- 
duction, iv. 

ex ordine : cf. 1. 139. Horo = ' in a row.' 

178. Observe the hiatus cedro, Italiis ; it is partly due to 
the pause after ctdro. Vergil uses it especially in Greek 
words, above all in propor names. Tlio uso of wooden 
statuos is intended as a sign of thc simplicity of oarly days, 

Italus : a fabulous ancestor, who camo from Arcadia, 
and taught the Oonotrians agriculture. 

Sabiuus : son of Sancus, and eponymons hero of the 
Sabines, also reiiresonted as a god of agriculture. 

179. vitisator: borrowed from Attius, who uses it of 
Bacchus. ' The planter of the vine.' 

sub ima^ne may = * ns a statue.' Perhaps it is safer to 
take it = having a pruning hook figured on the pedestal 
which was the base of the statue. The literal meaning of 
suh seems more natural. 

180. For Saturuus soe Vocabulary of Proper Names. 
According to legend he came to Italy after being detlironed 
by Juiiinter, and his reign was a Goldon Age. .Tanus was the 
oldest Italian national god. His namo is the same as Dianus, 
masculine of Diana, a sun-god, god of the morning, god of 
all beginning, and god of gates. He was two-faced to look 
in and out of the gate. 

181. The vestibulum [tc = out ; stabuhim (sto) = a standing 
place] was a courtyard in front of a house or temple, pro- 
duced by running out the side walls. It was not roofed in, 
and was only found in large buildings. 

ab orig^ine - 'from the begiuning' : i. e. kings of the 
earliest days. 

182. f For que thcre is a reading qui, which would make 
kings and warriors tho same. But those mentioned by name 
wore essentially peaceful. 

183. postibus = ' on the door.' So (iii. 286-7) Aeneas 
fastens tlio spoils of Abas on the temple door at Actium. 

184. captivus is vcry rarely used of things. It also occurs 
in Vorgil with sangiiis and vestis. 

currus : thc ancient war-chariot was light enough to be 
carriod, at all evonts by an ancient hero. Notice the alliter- 
ation of c in thcse throe lincs. 

185. cristae capitum = ' helmet erests.' the crest being 
put instoad of tlic helmet. 


clanstra: i. e. the gates of captured towns. Benoist 
compares tlie trophy made by Florence and Genoa of tlie 
cliain which closed the harbonr of Pisa. 

186. Notice the lengthening of tlio -que before clipei, an 
imitation of Homer's use. It occurs sixteen times in Vergil, 
in fourteen of which it is followed as here by a double con- 
sonant, in one by s, and in the last (,iii. 91) by L 

rostra : no doubt Vergil was thinking of the rostra in 
the forum. It was a large pulpit used by orators to address 
the people, and decorated with prows of ships taken b. c. 33. 
80 Pompey decorated his house with the beaks of pirate 

187. ipse : i.e. Picus. 

Quirinali = 'augur's,' Romulus being an augur. 

lituo : the stafFused by the augurs to mark out the parts 
of the sky, and used by Romulus at the foundation of Rome. 
The ablative is one of quality or description. 

188. trabea : the garment of kings and augurs, a short 
toga strii^ed with purple or saffron. 

ancile : small oblong shiekls, twelve in number, eleven 
of which were made by Numa's orders after the pattern of 
one which fell from heaven, on the preservation of which 
depended the safety of Rome. They were kept and carried 
in pi'ocession by the Salii, priests of Mars. 

189. equum : for genitive see ]. 58, note. 

coniunz : according to Ovid Circe was not wife of Picus, 
but in love with liim, so that sho changed him into a bird 
on account of his love for Caneiis. 

190-1. ' Smote him with golden wand and changed him 
with poison, and made him a bird, with wings spotted with 
divers colours.' 

aurea, abl., scans as a spondco by synizesis. Cf. 1. 33. 

avem, ' a woodpecker.' 

que, 'and sprinkled (his) wings.' 

coloribus : purple wings and golden neck and breast, 
according to Ovid, Mct. xiv. 320-96. 

192. intus : adverbial and pleonastic = ' in the temple 
within.' The ablative is local. 

patria: ef. avito, 1. 169, note. 

193. vocavit = ' had called to him,' by servants. 

194. prior : notice comparative of two parties. 

195. enim : to explain his use of their name. 'Do not 
wonder,' he says, ' that I call you by your name, for I know 
who you are.' This does not agree very well with ignota in 
1. 167, unless we imagine that Latinus had knowledge with- 
held from his subjects, 

G 2 



196. auditl, ' iiot unlic.iid <>f was yonr jnui-noy,' i. e. 'yonr 
fame lias prcOfcUHl yon.' 

aeqiiore: aljlative of spaeo ovor wliicli. 

197. cuius egentes : dotilile intoi rogativo, ' Wliat canse 
drovo yonr sliiji.s lackiug wlmt . . . ? ' Translate ' Wliat wa.s 
tlio cau-e, or wliat lacked ye tliat your ships . . .?' A com- 
mon constructiou in Oreek. 

cuius : neuter. 
199-200. 'Whether ye missed the way, or were tcmpest- 
driven, as often is the lot of sailors on the deep . . .' 

viae : genitive of remoter action, a subdivision of the 
objecti\e genitive = a prepositional phrase. 

200. qualia multa : the Homeiic ola re iroWa. The lino is 
a parentliesis. 

201. intrastis = intravistis : Aeneas uses the same word 
of his arrival in Italy, iii. 501. 

202. ne . . . neve. Cf. 1. 22, note. 

203. Supply esse, 'be not ignorant that the Latins aro the 
staek of Sat\n-n.' 

vinclo nec legfibus : hendiadys= ' by force of law.' 

204. ' But ' niust be understood to oppose this line to 1. 203. 
Greok would use fiiv . . . 5«. 

se. . . tenentem, 'guarding itself from Avrong,' = se conti- 

veteris dei : i. e. Saturn. 

205. fama est obscurior annis, 'the tale is obscured by 

annis : ablative nf instrnment. 
For the coinparative seo 1. 46, note. 

206. Auruncos . . . senes : only the old men of the oldest 
tribe know of tho tradition. The Aurnnci lived between 
the Volscians and tho Campanians, and are identified with 
the Ausones. 

ita i-efers to ut ('how'), and should be loft untrans- 

Notice the use of the present infinitive after ntemini of 
what comes witliin tho speaker's iiersonal experience. 

his . . . ag-ris : used vaguely of Italy. 

207. j-penetrarit — penetraverit, perfect subjunctive. 
prefers to read penetracit, liut the subjunctive is needed as 
this is a dependent clause in Oratio Obliqua. The construc- 
tion «f + subjunctive stands hero for an accusative and 
infinitive, which would be more usual after/e»Te. 

208. ' And Thracian Samos, Samothrace now styled.' — 



2og. hinc is morc definitely explained by Cvnjihi Tyrrhena 
ab btde. Constriie it with jirofedum. 

CorytM. In iii. 170 Aeneas is warned by the Penates 
in a dream to seeli again Corythus and the Ausonian hmd. 

210. solio: ablative of phice. 
stellantis : a Lucretian word. 

re^a caeli : the same expression is used by Lucan with 
regard to the future deification of Nero. 

f^ii. AMget. This is tlie manuscrij^t reading and makes 
very good sense, if aUarihus be taken as ablative, ' iucreases 
tlie nuniber of gods with altars.' Others prefer to read 
acldif, and then altarihiis is dative, 'adds a number to tlie 
altars of the gods.' Vergil is inconsistent with liimself in 
placing Dardanus in Olympus, for in vi. 650 he made him 
onc of tlie dwellers in Elysium. 

212. dixerat, 'he ceased.' a common use of tlie pluperfect. 
Xotice the caesura in the fourth foot with elision. Cf. 1. 177. 
Ilioneus had acted as spokesman to Dido (i. 521) in Aeneas' 

213. With actos supply nos. 

214. vestris : be careful not to translate this as if it were 
tuis : it refers to king and people. 

succedere: infinitive is less common tlian t(t + sub- 

215. ' Xeither star nor shore has misled us in the direction 
of our course.' By the stars, of course, and by knowledge of 
the sliore tlie ancients steered. 

re^one : from rego and rectiis, ' straight.' Cf. ii. 737 'nota 
excedo regione viarum.' Tlie ablative is best taken as one of 
respect, but Roby calls it local, classing it w ith parte,dexfra, 
medio, &c. 

216. hanc . . . urbem : accusative of motion after adferimur. 

217. regnis : jdural for singular. 

CLuae maxima, ' the greatest whicli,' superhitiveattracted, 
as often, into relative clause. The Trojans were in tlie habit 
of exaggerating thoir empire, which cannot have contained 
more thau the north-west coast of Asia Minor. Cf. iii. i ; 

ii- 557- 

218. extremo . . . Olympo : i. e. the East. Ablative of 
place whence without a preposition. Keep tlie foree of the 
imperfect • used to behold.' 

2ig. principium : supply est. So with rex, 1. 220. 

220. avo — ' ancestor.' The line of descent ran as follows : 
Juppiter — Dardanus— Ericthonius — Tros — Assaracus — Capys 
— Anchises — Aeneas. 


suprema = ' most liigh.' A phrase from Ennius. 
222-7. ' How mighty a storm was Ict looso from fcll 
Myccnac and passed over thc plains of Ida, drivcn by what 
fate cithcr world of Europc and Asia chislied in battle, that 
man has hoard whomsoever tho farthest hind where Occan 
bcats (kecps far away), and whomsoever the region of the 
scorehing sun lying midmost of the four zones siinders 
from us.' 

222. Zdaeos : here, of course, Ida in thc Troad. 
Mycenis : cruel as being the city of Agamemnon, who 

led tlie Grcek liost to tl;e destruetion of Troy. 

223. ierit : indirect question after aiuUit, so conmrrerit, 
1. 224. 

224. Europae atque Asiae. So Catullus (Ixviii. 89) calls 
Troy thc common tomb of Asia and Europe. Hcrodotus 
speaks of the Trojan war as being a war betwcen tlie two 
continents, and of the Graeco-Persian war as its sequel. 

225. si quem : there is no idea of condition here, but thc 
expression = (/Me>HCHjng!(e. So in Greek «j rt often = o n. 

refuso: ablative of quality, 'wherc Ocean is driven 
back.' Sidgwick translates ' baffled.' 

226. Notice the hiatus after a Greek word, and see 1. 178, 

227. medio : cf. \. 59. 

plag^a : i. e. the Torrid zone ; Vergil means Central Africa. 
iniqui: intempcrate in heat ; 'bycruel sun-blaze worn.' 
— (Morris. ) 

228. diluvio : carrying on tho idca of Troy, whoso ruin is 
l)ictured as a flood sweeping all Ijefore it, 

229. dis : dative of advantagc. The I)i patrii were tho 
Pciiates wliich Aencas carricd with him from Troy. 

230. innociium may be exphiined in twoways — (i) where 
we can livc witliout fear ; (2) whorc we sliall do no harm. 
Thc latter suits bettcr the gencral tone of the si^ecfli. 

cunctis = all without exception : dative after pateniem : 
• man's frce birthright, air and wave.'— (Conington.) 

231. indecores, 'a sliame to,' a rare word, for which seo 
xi. 423, 8)5 ; xii. 25, 679. regno is dative. Again notice 
cacsura aud clision. 

232. tantique : the force of the nec is continued, so trans- 
latc quc by ' iKir.' Tlicre is another reading ve. 

abolescet, ' shall fade.' 

facti^^'for a deed,' objectivo genilivo corrcsponding to 
an accusative or infinitivc after the corresponding vcrb. Cf. 
J'i«ja jiericuU, iimor hostium, &c. 


233. Grammatically the sentence is ambiguous, as it is 
not clear which is the subject. The sense makes it plain 
that TrAam is object and Ausonios subject. 
Troiam= rroiaHOS. 

234-5. fa** • • • Aeneae : compare the expression Priami 
fatonim, ii. 554. ' The fates of Priam ' became in later days 
almost a proverbial expression to signify a change from 
prosperity to miserj-. Here, on the other hand, ' The fates 
of Aeneas' calls attention to the belief that Aeneas is 
especially under the care of heaven. 

potentem is explained by the following line : ' his x-ight 
hand powerful whether one proves it in friendship or in 
war and anns.' 

236. ObseiTe tlie rhythm, the rare dissyllabic spondee in 
first foot, laying emphasis on the rnulti. This is an exaggera- 
tion, for we only know of Dido's offer at Carthage, i. 

nltro: the force of this word is that of going farther 
than. or beyond, what might be expected. It may often be 
translated ' una-sked ' (as here" , 'iinprovoked,' •' voluntarily.' 

237. This line is au example of zeugma, i. e. a verb 
grammatically belonging to two or more substantives is in 
sense appropriate to one only (or to less than all\ 'We 
hold forth fillets and (utter words of entreaty.' 

vittas : olive-branches decked with garlands of wool 
'cTififiaTa , carried by suppliants. 

precantia : not hypermetric, but scanned prccant.Ta. i 
being consonantal as in 1. 175. Ovidhas a similar use of the 
participle amantia xerha. 

239. fata denm= ' the oraclea of the god,*/a<a in the sense 
of the spoken word. 

vestras: as in 1. 214. 

exquirere: infinitive after egere, analogousto the ordinary 
infinitive after cog^j, expressing purpose instead of the supine 
in -um. Cf. II. 213-4. 

240. imperiis egere suis, ' drove us by their behests,' 
fafa being almost personified. 

hinc looks back to his . . . agris, 1. 206. 

241. hnc is explained by ad Thybrim. 
repetit, ' reealls ' ; suVjject is Apollo. 

inssisqne ingentibns nrgTiet= ' and presses us with his 
weighty bidding.' 

242. Thybrim: for accusative cf. 1. 84. 

If sacra is to be pressed, this expression is an ana* 
chronism. as the peculiar sanctity of the Numicus was due 


to the iact lliat it was tlie scene of Aeiicas' disappcarance 
from eaitli. But sacer is a comnion epithet of rivers. 

243. dat : hcro tho suhject changes to Aeneas. 
praeterea: i. e. he sends gifts as well as an emljassy. 

244. ' (iifts, remnants savcd from bhizing Troy.' 

245. aMVO = aure(t 2^atc)<i, ' a goklcn cup.' 

libabat : imperfect as in I. 218, ' uscd to make lihatii.n.' 

246. g^estamen: in apposition to and inchiding the thrce 
followiug iiouns, the sceptre, diadem, and embroidered robc. 
In iii. 286 gestamen is used of a shield, and tho word (from 
f/ero) is better suited to things carricd in thc hand. 

vocatis: i.e. summoncd to the assembly, ad cunciouem. 

247. more, ' as was his wont.' dare iura is used of giving 
hnws in iii. 137. 

populis: not phiral for singuhir, but refcrring to the 
different iiations undcr Priam's sway, ii. 556 ' tot . . . poijulis 
. . . sujicrbum.' 

tiaras : the feminine form tiara is commoner ; it was 
tlie head-drcss of the Phrygian kings. 

248. labor : in appositiou to vcsfes, ' robes the work of 
Trojan dames.' Tliis usc of labor is a j-eminisccnce of the 
Homcric tpya •yvvaiKuiv. A simihir cxi^ression occurs ii. 306 
houm lahores, the toil of tlie ox being mentioned instead of 
tho ploughed fiekls produced by the toih Valerius Fhiccus 
imitates Vergil iii pocula . . . insignis vetemm lahor. For the 
unfinislicd line see l. 129. 

249. Ilionei : by synizesis. 
dictis : causal ablati^c. 

250. obtutu is to bc taken as abhitive of manncr witli 
dtfixa, 'hckl liis cycs fixcd down in gaze.' It is cquivalent 
to ohtuens. 

immobilis: not 'immovablc' liere, but ' motionless,' 
like tlie French iinmohUc. 

252. picta : i. c. 2)/c/« «c", ' embroidcred.' 
For tiic fcirm Friameia cf. Aenein, 1. i. 

253. conubio : fnr scansion scc I. 96, untc. 

moratur, ' is al»siirbed by,' ' broods over ' : Froncii cau 
transhite morc litcrally with s\irrrtvr sur. Conti-ast flie use 
of nwror with tlic accusativc (e.g. ii. 287^, 'cares nothing for.' 

254. sub pectore : a common Vergilinn ]>hrasc, ' in liis 

sortem : tlie oracle given, 11. 96-101. 

255. hunc illum — Jtnnc esse ilhun <juem oraculum porlenderif. 
Cf. 1. 128. The accusativcand intinitivc isduetothescntencc 
being Latinus' thought, and thcrofore in Oratio Obliqua. 


fatis must be taken with lyjrirndi. For the ending of 
the vorse compare 1. 209. 

256. portendi = •foretokl": it also bears a neuter meaning, 
to • impeiid.' •threaten,' usually in an unfavourable sense, 
altliough Livy u^es it with spes. 

256. 257. paritnsque in regna vocari auspiciis = ' and 
called to share his rt-ahn with equal power.' The auspices 
in earh' days were tlie peculiar ijrovince of kings. 

257. liuic . . . futuram : the common use of est rnihi = 

258. ciuae . , . occupet : for subjunctive see 1. 99, note ; 
occupare, not ' occupy,' but ' giasp.' 

259. secuudeut : subjunctive of wish. Cf. iii. 36 ' ritc 
secundareiit visus omenque levarent.' 

260. augTirium, 'the oracle' of Faunus. or, possibly, the 
omen of the swarm of bees, Ih 64-70. 

261. nec spemo = Ubenfer accipio. An example of Litotes, 
for which see 1. 4. 

reg-e Latino : ablative absolute. equivalent to dum with 
the futui'e indicative. 

262. uber, • the fatness of rieh land,' another Homeric 
expression, ov9apdpovpr]s. In iii. 95 we have ' tellus vos ubere 
hieto accipiet reduces.' ve, the force of njn covers both chiuses. 

deerit scans cKrit by synizesis ; so deest may be scanned 
as a monosyllable. 

263. nostri, ' desire of me, ' objective genitive. 

264. hospitio, ' in friendship,' ablative of manuer. 
properat : like properahat, l. 57. 

265. adveniat : jussive subjunctive. 
neve = et ne. 

266. ' Part of my alliance shall be to grasp your king's 
riglit hand.' pars here = the chief, or essential part or 

tyranni = 'king,' in its oi-iginal Greek sense of one 
hokling supreme power, and without its later evil meaning 
of 'tyrant ' in our sense of the word. 

267. contra: adverbiah ' in reply.' 

268. est miM : as 1. 257. 
viro, • liusband.' 

269. adyto (^common also in plural^ is properly a Greek 
word, ' not to be entered,' and was used of that part of 
a temple to wliich the priest only had access. 

caelo : ablative of phice without a preposition. 

270. monstra, 'portents.' Much wider in u.-^e than the 
corresponding English word. and embracing whatever was 


slrange and lerrible to mind or scnses. According to its 
dorivation (monco) it meant originally a divine warning of 
coniing cvil. 

sinunt with non = vetani : compare the Greek ovk tw. 

g^eneros : f<>r plural sce 1. 98, note. 

271. restare, 'rcmains for,' ' is the futurc of.' 

canunt, ' l>ode,' a zeugma, as it is only strictly applicable 
to sortes, not to monsira. 

sangniine, &e. See 11. 98-9. 

272. hnuc illiun, ' lic is tlie man the fates demand.' Cf. 
1. 255, note. 

273. veri : partitivc genitive. 

augiirat = praesentit. Cf. ' quis longos sihi non auguret 

opto = 'choose." * I firmly judge, and, what I judge, 
desire.' — (Drydcn.) 

274. numero = e.x- »u<?>!C)o. Ablative of separation. 

275. nitidi: of condition, 'sleek.' 

276. omnibus: i. e. the hundred spokesmen, 1. 153. 
ordine, 'in order,' i. e. one after another. 

277. alipedes : apparently only here used absolutely = 
'liorscs' ; clscwhcre wc lind equi witli it. 

instratos ostro . . . pictisciue tapetis : hendiadys for 
'instratos tapetis pictis ostro,' 'caparisoned with trappings 
cmbroidcred with gold.' 

tapete is a word of many forms, making nominative 
plural tapcfia and tapeta, dative tapetibus and tapetis. 

278. aurea by position is the emphatic word, 'Of gold the 
l^oitrcls.' As a rule monilia — necklaces of gcms, beads, &c. — 
are confined to mcn, liere they = xthahrae v. 310). 

279. Herc too the repctition of auro . . . aurum marks 
out tlie words for empliasis. ' With gold tlicy are hung, 
red gold thcy champ beneath their bits.' 

auro refcrs back to the monilia, aurnyn = aurea frena, 
'golden bits.' 

For the use of fulvum see 1. 76, notc. ' And champ 
bencath their teeth the foaming gold.' — (Dryden.i 

280. iug^ales is here a noun. 

281. ignem: Ovid {Met. ii. 84) similarly describes the 
horses of the sun — 

'ignibus illis 
quos in pectore habent, quos ore et naribus efflant.' 

282. patri, 'thc sun,' dcpends upon/crrtto. 

daedala, ' cunning.' a rcminiscence <>f Kunius, \vh.> 
applies thc word to Minerva. 


283 'Bred by stealth, a bastarcl raco, from a mother 
introduced.' Circe had tricked her father by breeding foals 
tinknown to him from one of his horses. Tliis comes from 
Homer {II. v. 265. &c. ^, Avhere by a similar artifice Anchises 
bred himself horses from those given by Zeus to Tros. 

furata goes closely with creavit, as though it were 

284. talibns : ablative of attendant cireumstances, almost 
equivaleut to ablative absohite. 

285. sublimes in ec|.nis : cf. 11. 624-5 ' pars arduus altis 
pulverulentus equis.' 

286. luacbiis : Inachus, father of lo, was founder and 
first king of Argos ; the river of Argos also bore the same 
name, and was identified with the king. 

sese referebat, ' was returning ' : compare the common 
prose use of referre pedem. 

Ar^s : from the plural form Argi. The neuter singular 
form Argos only occurs in the nominative and accusativc. 
Juno was returning from Argos, one of the chief seats of 
her worship, to Carthage, which was also one of her favourite 

287. saeva: an epithet fi"equently applied to Juno iu thls 
connexion ^e. g. i. 4; ii. 612. She was always the deadliest 
enemy of Troy, having been slighted, as was Pallas, by 
Paris in his judgement. Venus, however, in whose favour 
Paris decided, supported Troy. 

aurasqxie iuvecta tenebat : literally * held the air borne 
upon it,' i. e. 'held her way riding on tlie air.' 

288. et = 'when.' This is an instance of Parataxis, the 
two sentences being co-ordinated, not subordinated. 

tlonge, 'afar' or ■ at a distance.' There is a variant 

289. prospexit, 'beheld . . . even from Pachynura.' Cf. iii. 
647-8 ' ab rupe Cyclopas prospicio.' 

nSQue : the main idea of the word is 'cuntinuously.' 
It is used (i) of time = ' ever,' ' all the time from,' ' uj) to ' ; 
•'2) of place = ' all the way ' ; (3) of amount = ' up to ' (what 
is required\ 

Pachyno : the southernmost cape of Sicily, some 400 
miles from the Tiber. 

290. moliri = 'toiling to build." Cf. 1. 127, note. A 
subject (Aemayi, or Teucros must be supplicd. 

iam fidere, 'has trust at last in the land.' 

291. stetit, ' checked her flight.' 
fiza, ' pierced with anguish.' 


292. qtiassans : to shakc tlic lieail was aiiiong the ancieuts 
a sigu of sorrow or anger. Cf. xii. 894. 

pectore: ahlative of phice whence. 

293. stirpem : aceusative of exelamation, really objcct to 
sonie verb uiuh^r.stood. Cf. me miserani. 

fatis contraria nostris fata Phrygfum, ' destinies of 
Plnygia opposod to destiuies of uiiue.' The idea is that the 
fortuues of Juno and lu^r cherished towns Argos and Carthage 
clashed with those of Aeueas and Rome. This bclief in the 
existence of jiarticular destinies is, of course, out of harniouy 
with tiuit of oue all-powerful fate. 

294. num, &c., 'could tliey fall on the Sigean plains ? 
could th(!y captured be captured ? did Troy in flames burn 
its inhabitauts ? ' A rhetorical way of sayiug ' The Trojans 
could uot be destroyed, then ? ' 

Sigeis: Sigeum was the north-west promontory of the 
Troad. Cf. ii. 312 ' Sigea igni freta lata relucent.' 

campis is local ablative. Tlie lines are borrowed froni 
Eunius : — 

• quae nequc Dai"daniis campis potuere perire, 
nec, cum cajjta, capi ; nec, cum combusta, cremari.' 

296. per goverus all four accusatives. For the idea cf. 
ii. 632 ' flammam inter et hostes expedior,' of Aeneas 
escaping from Troy. 

297. credo, ' I suppose,' ironical. 

numina: the plural used of a single god refers to the 
various mauifestatious of liis will or jiower. Cf. iii. 543-4 
' numina sancta precamur PaHadis.' 

298. 'Or does my guttered spleen at leugth relent ? ' — 

exsaturata: rf. v. 781 ' luuonis gravis ira nec exsatura- 
bilo pectus.' 

299. qiiin etiam = ' nay oven,' to be taken with ausa. Cf. 
ii. 768 ' ausiis quin etiaiu voces iactare.' 

exciissos : supply iUrni or Teucros. 
infesta witli sequi, ' follow witli hati-ed.' 

300. avisa: not a participle, l)ut iierfcct. Conington prefers 
to treat it as a j^articiple, and it is true that sinn is com- 
paralively rarely omitted. But qiiiit, etiam makes better sense 
with a finite verb. 

profugis : dativc after me upponere. 

toto: i. e. in all jjarts of. With lotu.s and iiudiKS thc 
pveposition is commonly omitted. 


301. absiimptae : siipply «(oj^ 

302. Syrtes : see Voealnilary of Proper Names. Here 
vBk. i) Juno suceeeded in destroying thirteen Trojan sliips. 

Scylla is deseribed by Honier in the twelfth Odysseij as 
a dreadful monster witli twelve feet and six long necks, 
with a head on each. Up to the middle slie is sunk in the 
cave, but her heads are abovo the gulf, and she lishes witli 
tliem for dolpliins and sea-dogs. Witli eacli head she 
carries off a sailor from such ships as pass. 

Cliaryljdis lies under a great fig-tree growing on a cliff, 
and there she sucks down water thrice a day, and tliriee 
a day spouts it forth. If a ship passes while she is sucking 
in tlie water, it must be lost with all on board. Odysseus 
avoided her, and escaped with the loss of six men, whom 
ScyUa devoured. Aeneas (Bk. iii^ managed to escape both 
by following the advice of Helenus. 

303. conduntxtr: reflexive middle use, 'hide themselves.' 
See Appendix. 

alveo : dissyllabic. Cf. 1. 33. 

304. securi, ' at rest from the sea and from me,' a genitive 
of respect or reference imitated from the Greek. Cf. i. 350 
' securus amorum.' 

Mars: Vergil is liere inconsistent with himself, for 
elsewliere {Georg. ii. 455) he names Bacchus as the cause 
of the fight between the Centaurs and Lapithae. But 
Servius tells us that Mars was omitted by Piritlioiis when he 
invited the other gods to his marriage-feast, and roused the 
fight in revenge. 

305. Ziapithtun : for the genitive see 1. 58, note. 

306. genitor : i. e. Juppiter. 

Calydona: Oeneus, king of this Aetolian town, had 
forgotten to sacrifice to Minerva when he Avas doing so to 
the other gods, and therefore Juppiter allowed her to send 
a great boar to ravage the hind ; Meleager finally saved the 
land by killing the boar. Calydona is Greek accusative. 

Dianae with conccssif in ims. 

307. flf the reading is right merentem must be taken 
with both Lajyithas and Calydona with the same construction 
as the preceding accusatives. ' Mars could destroy the 
Lapithae, Jove sacrificed Calydon to Diana's wrath, tho 
Lapithae and Calydon desei-ving punishment for what 
crime ? ' Tliis is fluite intelligible, and no more forced than 
many Vergilian expressions. Tliere are other readings, the 
best of which is 'Lapithis . . . Calydone merente,' whicli 
Benoist prefers. AVith the ablative absolute there is no 


ilitHculty, hiit it is not likoly that an easy ruading slionltl l)o 
ifplaced )(}• onc niorf <lit!icult. 

scelus . . . merentem is a Vergilian refinemcnt on 
scelcris poenavi merentem, for wliich compare ii. 229 '.scelus 
expcndisso morentem ' ; and ii. 585-6 ' sumpsisse merentes 
huidabor pocnas.' 

308. ast: the strongest form of 'but.' For it and for the 
gencral tone of tho line compare i. 46-7 

'Ast ego quae divom incedo regina, lovisque 
ot soror et coniunx.' 

309. potui = SMsAmM/, ' brookod to,' 'deigncd.' A use 
simihir to tlie Grcck T\aoj. 

memet in omnia verti, ' liave turned my hand to all 

memet : a raro word in horoic verse, it occurs iv. 606. 

310. Aeuea: one man only opposed to the whole peoples 
whom Mars and Diana could destroy. 

numiua : see 1. 297, note. 

311. Notice the cliango from tlio natural vivid future 
{duhitaho) to the vague futnre {duhitem). 

usquam = xispiam, a rare use, for as a rule usquam, like 
ullus, is confined to negative or quasi-negativc sontcnces. 

312. si: not so much ' if ' as ' since.' 

superos : the word has two meanings : (i) the gods 
abovc (as here) ; (2) men on the earth, as opposod to tlie 
dead below. 

Acheronta, 'tlio powers of hell.* Cf. 1. 91. Greek 

313- esto, ' so be it,' a concession. 

prohibere : su^iply Acnean. 

314. ' And fixed by fato Lavinia remains his bride,' i. e. 
liis marriago is inevitablo. coniuyix is predicate. 

315. With trahere sujiply res : tho verb liero = 'delay.' 

317. ' Let son and father-in-law como togother at tliis 
price of their own peoplo.' merccs is frequently used in this 
bad sense, not 'reward' but 'punisliment.' 

suorum is gonitive of definition = ' a price consisting of 
thoir own people.' 

318. ' Tlie blood of Trojan and Rutulian, maiden, sliall 
l>y thy dower.' Cf. 0\id,Mct. xiii. 523 ' at, puto, funeribus 
dotabere, regia virgo.' 

319. ' Bellona at the aijpointod liour 

Shall light you to your bridal bowor.' — (Conington.) 
Th.0 pronuba was a matron who attendod the bride on 


]ier wefliling ilay. We find .Tnno lierself performing this 
duty for Dido, iv. i66. 

Belloua: goddess of war, probably a Sabino goddess. 

nec face, &c., 'Not Cisseis alone pregnant with a torch 
brought forth a nuptial tlame ; nay more, Venus has such 
offspring of her own, even a second Paris, again are these 
torches frauglit with doom for risen Troy.' 

320. Cisseis: Hecuba, daughter of Cisseus, in accordance 
witli a droam, believed that she carried a torch iu lier wonib, 
and tlie interpreters of dreams predicted that there sliould 
be born from her a son who should set all Asia ablaze. The 
prediction was fulfilled by the birth of Paris, whose sin 
caused tlie Trojau war. 

ignes . . . iug-ales: i. e. the man-iage torches lighted 
for Paris and Helen, as well as the torch of ruin which they 

321. partus is explained by Faris alter ; Aeneas is to be the 
second Paris. 

Notice the use of suus of the real not the grammatical 
subject. The meaning is ' Venus has lier own son.' 

322. recidiva. Cf. iv. 344 ' et recidiva manu posuissem 
Pergama victis.' The word is a gardening term applied to 
seeds whicli grow up after falling from a plant. 

in Ferg^ama : a Vergilian refinement on the customary 
dative aiterfunestae. 

323. dedit : perfect where English uses pluperfect. 
horrenda, ' grim in her fury.' 

324. luctificam: a rare word, transitive in force. Cf 
homJicKs, teiri/icits, &c. 

AUecto: for Alecto, a Greek word = unceasing. Greek 
accusative : these words, except for a genitive in us, are 

dirarum : literally = ' accursed.' This adjective origin- 
ally belonged to the technical language of the augurs, having 
tlie meaning of ill-omened. Hence it came to be used as 
a substantive, dirae = ' portents,' and as a proper name = 
'theFuries.' They were originally embodiments of curses 
pronounced upon criminals. Their names were unknown 
and their number unlimited. Later writers reduced them 
to three, Tisiphone, Allecto, and Megaera. Vergil in bk. xii 
places the last in hell, and the first two at the foot of 
Juppiter's throne. 

325. que is epexegetical {as et in 1. 321), almost = i. e. 
The sedes of the Furies was the infeniae tenebrae. 

326. crimina = ' quarrels.' 



cordi : predieative ilative probal)ly aii i-ld locativi), 
eonibiin d witli a dative of person interested, nii. * To wlioin 
ai-c dear.' 

327. pater — 'Fathcr Pluto,' not fatlicr of tlu' Furii-s, 
who were sprung from Achcron and Niglit. 

Pluton : CTreck form. Notice tho repetition of the 
vcrb ; it is much more cmphatic than et would have bcen. 
Cf. 1. 75- 

328. moustrum : hcro almost in its literal English 

tot, &c. This givcs thc roason why Allecto was hatcd, 
because she took so many frightful shapes, &<■. 

329. saevae : supply s^mt. 

atra : transfcrcnce of epithet ; thc snakes are blai-k, 
and they are so numeroiis that she seems all black with 

330. quam : translate as if it were iUaw. 
talia : CJk. rotaSe. 

331. ' Maidcn, child of Night, grant mc this toil all my 
own.' proprium here boars its original meaning, ' one's 
own,' bi;t refers to Juno, not to Allccto. It frcf£uently conies 
to mean 'pcrpctual,' 'abiding.' With its first meaning 
compare tlie French popr. Others take it = ' Thy proper 
task and scrvicc' 

Nocte : ablativc of origin. Cf. 1. 152 'satus Anchisa.' 
da . . . operam : a common proso exprcssion for ' tako 
trouble,' ' scc to it that.' 

332. noster = meiis. 

cedat with loco : a military phrasc for ' to giveground.' 

333. neu : cf. 1. 22, &c. 
conubiis : cf. 1. 96, &<■. 

ambire = 'win ovcr.' Another transference, for the 
word is gencrally applicd to tlic woman sought in marriagc. 
not to the father-in-law. Otlicrs take it = 'deceive,' for 
which cf. iv. 283. 

335. unanimos, ' of one hcart and mind,' i. e. befoi-e thcy 
wcre rou&ed to battle against one anothcr. 

336. versare = rrxare, ' disquiet.' Thc word is a frequen- 
tative, meaning to kccp on turning, witli the idea of bring- 
ing to a succcssful cnd. Cf. ii. 62 ' versare dolos ' = ' ply 
his guile.' 

odiis : instrumental. 

verbera (and faces, 1. 337) are not lici-e so much tho 
literal implcments which tlie Fnry uscs, although thcy 
appcar, 11. 451, 456, but thc trouble and madncss which thcy 
rcjircscnt and producc. 


337. tibi : supply sunt. 

mille : not to be presseci, ))ut = countless. Tlie gods 
of the aneients liad a different nanio for eaeli jiower tliey 
possessed, so that the one with most names would be the 
raost powerful. The words involve a flattering compliment. 

338. concute : literally = shake out, as though from a 
basket, all the evil thou knowest. Translate 'search well.' 
Commoner is excntere. 

fecnudiim : i.e. in evil arts. 

339. disice: stronger than j-iniy)e, 'sliatter.' 
compositam = ' already concluded.' 

sere crimina 'belli = 'sow quarrels tliat lead to battlc.' 
Vergilian refinement for crimina quae sint causae belli. 

340. The collective noun takes a singuhar verb because 
no stress is laid on the individual iuvcncs, but on them all 
aeting as one. Cf. 11. 105, 163. 

341. Gorgoneis : poison like that possessed by the snakes 
that surroixnded Medusa the CTorgon's liead. See Vocabulary 
of Proper Names. 

infecta is sometimes taken as = ' steeped in poison,' as 
though the snakes were so poisonous that Allecto herself 
became the same by contact with them. Better take it 
as a Vergilian refinement on cincta caput serpentibus venenaiis 
= her head surrounded by poisonous snakes. 

342. tyranni = regis, as in 1. 266. 

343. tacitum : either because it was night (cf. 1. 414), or 
lieeause Amata had given herself up to reflection. 

344. super = cJe, ' about.' Cf. 1. 358. Teucnm, cf. 1. 58, &c. 
Notiee the four-syllable ending, which is so common ia 
Homer, and is mainly used by Vergil with Greek words, 
as here. 

hymenaeus was the marriage song, hence it is often 
employed for marriage. Cf. iii. 328. 

345. ' A woman's cares and wrath were inflaming to fury.' 
ardentem is proleptic = so as to be furious, or at wliite heat. 

346. huic with conicit, 'hurled at her.' This is acommon 
Vergilian use of the dative = in with tlie accusative. Cf. 
ii. 19, 36, 85, vii. 456, &c. 

caeruleis, ' steely' (Sidgwick). It is a word with wide 
range, being used of the sea, sky, stars, the ancient Britons' 
woad, Germans' blue eyes, snakes, and cucumbers. It must 
therefore include all hues and shades Vjetween light gi-een 
and blue-black. The ancients were not definite in their 
ideas of colour, as we see in the use of purpureus for 
brightly coloured objects. 



' Froin lier ))lack bloody loeks, tho Fiiry shakcs 
Hor darling phisue, dn' favourite of lier snakes.' 


348. qiio =: ut hoc, 'tliat by it.' 

faribunda ^vith monstro, 'tliat frenzied by tliis eurse 
she may work confusion tliroughout the palace.' Misceri 
and its compounds arewords much af!ected by Vergil ; their 
underlying idea is tliat of 'confusion,' ' turmoil.' Cf. ii. 
298, 487. The sulijunctivo is final after quo = ut hoc. 

349. ille, 'the snake.' 

levia : notiee the length of tho e, 

lapsus : Vergil (ii. 225^ applies the same word to the 
niution of the snakes that killed Laoeoon. 

350. volvitur, 'slips along': middle ; see Appendix. 
attactu: ablative of manner. Only this case occurs. 
fallit = the CTreek XauOavfi, 'escapes her notice ' ; it 

goes closely with iuspirans, 'unmarked as it breathes upon 
her its poisonous breatli.' 

351. tortile . . . auriun = torques, 'a necklace'; women's 
necklaces were often in the shape of snakes. 

collo : local ablative. 

352. taenia: the end of fhe ribbon of which the vitta 
or down-hanging head-band was made. 

354. ' And while at first the taint glides on with clammy 
poison, and steals over her senses and wraps her bones 
with fire, but her soul lias not yet caught the fiame through- 
out her breast.' 

prima = adverb primo. Cf. I. 1 73. 

udo : a reference to the clammy look and feel of a snake. 
Transference of epithot. 

veneno : ablative of manner. 

355. Notico the construction of implico. and comparc the 
two differont constructions — ' dextrae se parvus lulus impli- 
cuit' (ii. 723) and ' implicuitque comam laeva (ii. 552), of 
wliich the former is the same as that of the text. 

356. This lino is taken from CatuUus, who has 'cuncto 
concepit pectore flammain,' Ixiv. 92. 

Tlie pe>- of percepit imjilies ' thoroughly.' 
357- Comparativo as in 1. 46. 
358. super : ef. 1. 344. 

fnata. Thero is anotlior roading natae, i. 0. ' concerning 
tlie marriago of her daughtor and tho Plirygian marriage.' 
But nala, ' weeping bitterly for lier daughter and the 
Phrygian marriage,' seems morc Vergilian. For the ending 
see 1. 344- 


359. exsulibus : tlie plural is contemptuous. 

datur : present for luture. Notice tho scansion of 
lAciiiia : the a is more frequently long. 

360. g^enitor: Lavinia's father, not her own. 
nataeqtie tuique: genitives after the impersonal miseret. 

' I pity yi>u ' = me miseret tui. 

361. primo aquilone : i. e, the first favourable wind. The 
force of north wincl need not be pressed, although Aeneas 
might be expectecl to go south, for a Koman poet ahvays 
preferred to use the name of a definite wind rather than 
a simple word like ventus. Ablative of attendant circum- 

362. Isotice the double alliteration : it may be kept in 
English 'The perjured pirate will desert, bear away thc 
damsel and make for the deep.' 

363. at expresses scorn, ' what ! ' There is another read- 
ing, an. 

non = nonm. 

penetrat = penetravit. Historic present. 
Lacedaemona : Greek Accusative. 
pastor : i.e. Paris. 

364. Iiedaeam : see Vocabulary of Proper Names. 

365. '^Vhat of thy solemn pledge? What of thine old 
care for thine own ? ' A verb must be supplied with quid, 
but it is difficult to say exactly what. 

tuorum : objective genitive after cura. 

366. cousanguineo : Turnus was son of Venilia, sister of 

dextera : to clasp tlie right hand was a i^ledge of 

367. Iiatinis: dative of advantage, ' is sought for the 

368. idque sedet, • and that resolve is fixed.' Sedere and 
stare are used with an idea of fixedness. Cf. 1. 611. animo 
is generally expressed with sedet. 

premunt, 'constrain,' like our 'put pressiu-e on,' 

369. equidem, ' I for my part.' 

370. dissidet = distat, ' is apart from ' : very rare. 

sic dicere : i. e. such is the meaning of tlie god's oracles. 

371. Amata's argument is twofold. (i) Any free land 
not subject to Latinus is ' foreign.' (2) If ' foreign' is to be 
taken in its usual sense, even then Turnus is a foreigner, 
for he traces his origin to Mycenae. 

repetatnr : subjunctive, as being a vague future condi- 
tion, ' if one were to trace back, one would find.' 

H 2 


372. ' Ina<lius aml Acrisius aio liis ancestors, tlie heart 
of Mycenae liis lionie.' Supply suiif. Inachus was the first, 
Acrisius tlie fourth king of Argos : tlie Kitter hegat Danae, 
who canie to Italy, and ))ecanic wife of Pihimnus, ))rother 
uf Picus and grandfatlier of Turnus. 

373. dictis is to be taken with ezperta. ' Strove to win 
Lalinus with tliese words.' 

374. coutra stare = rcsistere, 'withstood her.' 

penittis = 'inwardly,' 'to tlic depths/ hence 'com- 

lapsum : finite verb, supply est. 

375. malnm, 'the pf)ison.' 

376. tum vero — - rure Srj, 'thenat last.' Here the apodosis 

monstris, ' monstrous fancies,' almost 'nightmares.' 
In iii. 307 tlie word is used of the Trojans appearing to 
Andromaclio, who took tliem fur ghosts. 

377. sine more, ' unrestrainedly,' as though lost to all 
thought of decency. 

lymphata, ' maddened,' from the Greek vvfxfuKrjnTos = 
l^ossessed bj' a spirit. 

378. quondam : this word (^like olhn) lias three meanings : 
(r) 'formerly,' most common ; (2) ' at times,' as here ; (3) 
' some day. ' 

torto, ' circling.' 
turbo, ' a toi^.' 

379. ' Which 1)oys, rapt in tlieir sjwrt, drive in a great 
circle round empty halls.' 

380. intentus lias tlie idea of eager, strained attention. 
Cf. ii. I ' conticuere omnes, intentique ora tenebant.' 

ille : the top. 

habena, 'tlic lash ' of the wliip. 

381. ' In curved course it moves.' spatiis is a reference 
to the racecourse, and is curvatifi because of tlie in yyro. 1. 379. 

inscia: i. e. not understanding why it turns in circles. 
supra gives the idea of the boys bending down over 
the top. 

382. mirata, 'marvoUing at.' Notice the use of tho 
deponent perfect i^aiticiple as present. This is not un- 
common in Vergil. Cf. Ueorg. i. 339. 

buxum, ' tlie box-wood top.' It is very common to find 
the material used, in Vergil, for tlie instrument made from 
it, e. g. nes = a brazen trumpet ; ftrrmn = a sword ; aurum 
— a golden vessel ; innus (and other trees) = sliip, &c. 

383. dant animos plag-ae, ' the lashcs lend it lifo ' (Con.), 

NOTES lor 

i. e. the blows of the whip redouble the speed of tlie top. 
Di-yden took plagae as dativc, 'and lend their little souls at 
every struke.' 

illo : the speed of the top = illius cursu. For this iis-e of 
the pronoun cf ii. 171, where ea sigtm = signa eius rei. 

385. in silvas with evolat. 

siimilato mimine Bacchi, ' feigning tlie influence of 
Bacclius/ a i:)i-etence wliicli was soon changed to reality.' 
The Bacchanalia led to such excesses that the Senate forb^de 
them, B. c. 186. For them, and for all the references of the 
next twenty lincs, see the Bacchae of Euripides. 

386. Tlie 'greater sin' was pretending to be worshipping 
tlie god, while in reality using the worship to withdraw 
Lavinia from her father's power, and from the destiny pre- 
dicted by lieaveu. 

388. quo, ' in order to.' 

thalamum, ' the bridal-bed cf 1. 253). 
taedas, ' the marriage-torch.' 
Teucris : dative after eripiat. 

389. evoe = Gk. eiioiBaKxf, the cry uttered in tlie Baccliic 
revels. So jrcraens = fipifxuv, from which conies one of 
Bacchus' names, Bpufiios, the Noisy One. 

Notice the change from direct to indirect speech : in 
translation keep the former all through. 

dig^num : supply esse ; accusative and infinitive after 

390. molles : because Avrapped in soft leaves. 
tibi, ' iu thy honour ' ; dative of advantage. 
sumere : supply virgincm as subject. 

thyrsos : the th j-rsus was a wand or pole carried by the 
Bacchanals, and adorued at the top with vine-Ieaves or ivy. 

391. lustrare, 'dance round'; cf. 1. 148, note. The Bac- 
chautes imagined Bacchus to be present and conducting 
their dances. 

pascere = a?e?-e = ' to grow.' Keference to the lock of hair 
grown sacred to Bacchus may be found in Eur. Bacch. 494. 

393. It makes no difference whether quaerere depends ui^on 
arclor or agit ; in either case it is infinitive of purpose. 

nova . . . tecta : i. e. the woods. 

394. deseruere: perfect of instantaneous, momentary 
action = Gk. Aorist. 

ventis dant coHa comasciue, 'give necks and hair to 
tlie wind,' i. e. bare thcir nccks and let down their liair. 
Unbound hair was a characteristic of the Bacchanals, and 
was also thc rulc with those who expected to 1'eceive the 


divine inspiration, as tlie mind was tliiis freed and mado 
more ready for tlie afflatus. 

395. tremnlis, ' shaky ' voices, as though they were in- 
toxicated. 7didati(s was the Bacchic sliout of exultation. 

396. ' And girt witli skins they carry .shafts wreatlicd in 
vine-leaves.' Tlie revellers wore the skins of dappled fawns 
iv(l3pi5fs\ and sometimes their thyrsus was shod with an 
iron point concealed by leaves. I5ut hastas may well mean 
'spear-likc shafts,' without implying real spears. 

397. ipsa : Amata. 
fervida, 'all aglow.' 

pinum, *pine-torch.' Cf. 1. 382, note on buxutn. 

398. Notice the lengthening of tlie t of canit. Possibly 
( was the original quantity. Cf. x.433 'Tela manusque sinlt. 
Hinc . . . ,' where the pause assists in lengthening the it. 

For the endlng hymenaeos cf 11. 344, 358. 

399. torviim, ' fiercely,' a w<)rd usually applied to the 
eyes. The adjcctive herc is used adverbially, this being an 
extension of the 'cognate' construction. It is common both 
with singular and plural, e. g. perfidum ridetis, dulce loqumtem, 
acerha iuens, s^iintns immane. 

400. ubi quaeque \est) = o)nnes uhicunque estis. 

401. piis : hero of tlie feeling of parent for child ; also of 
that of child for parcnt. 

Amatae : objective genitive after gratia, ' tender regard 
liir Amata.' 

402. remordet, • gnaws ' or ' haunts.' 

403. ' Loose the fillets from your hair, and join the rites 
with me.' 

capite — si<5f/2;e?'e, ' celebrate.' 

404. talem: the adjective stands for an adverb, sic or ita. 
deserta ferarum: cf. iii. 646-7 ' in silvis inter deserta 

forarum lustra domosque.' 

405. Allecto : here iiominative. 

stimvilis a,git= 'iilies on all sides with Bacchic goads.' 

406. visa : supply est. For tense cf. I. 323. 

407. vertisse — ' disturbed.' 

408. tristis dea, ' grim goddess.' Cf. ii. 337 "tristis Erinys.' 
alis : the fuiy a]>poars wingcd in xii. 848. 

409. Rutuli : i. o. Turnus. 

Kotice the attractinn of urbem into the rolativc clause, 
a very common construction in prose also. 

.jio. Acrisioneis. Not a fominine patronymic in agrec- 
mont with Lanae, but an ablati\e plural adjcctivo to be 
taken with colonis. It is formed as if the name wero 

NOTES 103 

Acrision not Acrisius, as iu 1. 372. Tlien it is ablative of 
the instrument, being equivalent to colonis dedudis. It is not 
impossible to take it as dative = 'for Acrisian settlers.' 

41 r, delata refers to Danae, and explains how Danae 
reaclied Latium. 

quondam. In Vergirs day tlie town iaad vanished. 
After standing a siege by Tarquinius Supei'bus it had beeu 
destroyed by tlie Samnites. 

412. avis, ' by our ancestors.' The case is tlie dative of 
the agent, Avhicli is regular with tlie gerundive, and is found 
occasionally with the perfect participle passive, and ndjec- 
iives in -hilis. (Some have fancied that rtr/s='a bird,' iu 
relerence to the tale tliat the town took its name from 
a heron which iiew out of it as it was being burned.) 

ttenet : there is another easier reading, manet. 

413. fuit, 'is no more.' In this use of the perfect, 
attention is directed to the result of the action of the verb. 
' Has been,' implies ' is no more.' So often with vixi, ' I 
bave lived my life.' The best instance in Vergil is ii. 325 
* fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium et ingens gloria Teucrorum.' 

417. obscenam: a word drawn from tlie language of 
augury, implyingunfavourableomens. Translate 'ill-omened.' 

arat, ' furrows.' Sulcare is used in the same sense. Cf. 
Shakespeare, ' Delves the parallels in Beauty's brow.' 

induit, 'dons' : cf. l. 640, where the middle is used in 
just the same meaning. 

418. ramnm innectit olivae, 'binds a bough (chaplet) of 
olive to her hair.' Supply crinibus. Olive was worn by 
priests and priestesses wlien sacrificing. Cf. I. 751. 

419. Tlie order is anus sacerdos Innonis templique, *an 
aged priestess of Juno's temple.' An instance of hendiadys 
for which cf. ii. 319 ' arcis Phoebique sacerdos ' = ' priest 
of Phoebus in tlie citadel.' anus is here an adjective. 

420. se offert : cf. L 536. 

421. fusos : supply esse, ' to have been spent in vain.' 

422. tua : i. e. which was to be yours after your marriage 
witli Lavinia, Latinus having no male heirs. Transscribi, 
' to be assigned.' The word is a teclmical legal term for 
'conveying from one person to another.' In v. 750 tlie word 
is used of enrolling settlers in a colony. 

423. quaesitas sangnine, ' earned by thy blood.' This 
must be taken with 1. 426, and implies tliat Turnus had 
helped the Latins in war against the Etruscans. Tliis is 
inconsistent witli 1. 46, wliere Latinus is said to liave niled 
in a long peace. 


424. abuegat, ' icfuscs to give thce.' So tho simple negat, 
iii. 171 'Dictaca iu'gat tibi luppiter arva.' 

in regnum = 'to sharo tho rcalni.' 

quaeritur: not as in the hist line but~'is sought.' The 
repetition of tliis wortl, as of 'armari . . . in ai-ma,' 429-30 
may bo takt^n as jiroof that this book was not finally rovised. 

425. nunc : ironiuul, as often, with the imperative. 
ingratis, ' thankless,' ' quorum nuUa est gratia.' 
irrise, ' suorned fool.' Vocative, l)y altraction, for 

nominative. Cf. ii. 282-3 ' quibus Ilector ab oris | cxspectalc 
venis ? ' 

426. tege pace Latinos: iii-otect the Latins byconquering 
their eneniies, and im))osing a peace on them. 

427. adeo : this word is used with an intensive force with 
pronouns (rarely ille), nunc, iam, vix, sic, numorals, and tho 
imperativo : e. g. 1. 629 ' quinquo adeo ' = ' full fivc.' Ilere it 
is best translated by emphasizing the haec, * Tliis it was 
Saturnia bade me . . .' 

iaceres=lie asleep, as iii. 150 ' ante oculos adstare 
iacentis in somnis.' The mood is subjunctive becausc thc 
sentence is Oratio Obliqua. The direct spccch was 'Say to 
him when he sleops' — cuiii iavchit. 

428. ipsa: jirobably to be taken with iussiL 
Saturnia = Juno. 

429. armari: accusative and infinitive uiitiv ^wra, a, con- 
struction common with an active, very rarc with a passive 
infinitive. Hence some prefcr to read inbu {or ^iara. armari 
and moveri are middU'. Sec Appendix. 

430. laetus witli in arma— • rejoicing to takc up arms.' 
Otliers take laetns witli 2mi'u, and in arma with moveri. For 
repetition see 1. 424, note. 

431. pictas. In v. 663 we read of stems of painted pine. 
exure, ' sLay the chieftains, burn (he painted ships.* 

For the zeugma {exure being only applicable to cajinas) see 
]. 271. 

432. magna is feminine singuLar with vis, ' the great 
might of the heavenly ones.' 

433. dare : oj)posod to abnctjat, 1. 424. 

dicto parere : in its usual sense of ' obey (Juno's) bid- 
ding.' Otliers take it ' abide by his word.' Notice tlio 
tenses here : fatetur is present where future would bo 
more natural, while future infinitives might be expected 
aftcr it. 

434. sentiat used absohitely^ * let him feel' (his folly). 
Jussive subjunctivc. It is also i^ossible to omit the comma 

NOTES 105 

after sentiat and make it govern Tuinum ; ' feel the fury of 

tandem : as though Turnus had been very long- 

in a, = armatum. Cf. l. 167, note. 

435. hic: of time, 'then.' 

orsa : used passively as a noun = dida, a very rare use 
copied by Valerius Flaccus, v. 471. 
vicissim, ' in reply.' 

436. invectas : supply esse, accusative and infinitive after 

fuudam: this accusative is rare after invecias, which 
would iiaturally require a preposition after it. Tliere is 
another reading, alvto. 

437. nuntius, ' the news.' 

438. miM, ' i^ray ' ; ethic dative. 

440. ' But thee an old age outworn by decay and pa«t all 
bearing of truth.' situs is tlie decay or mould or over- 
growth whicli is caused, especially in land, by neglect : the 
word is from sino, ' to let be,' ' let alone.' 

veri is genitive of respect. 

effetus refers to hind which has had too many crops 
.trrAvvn oii ic in the past, so as to be incai^able of producing 

441. mater here lias a contemptuous force. 

arma : governed by the following inter. Anastroplie ; 
cf. 1. 30. 

442. 'Amidst the wars of Ivings fools the proplietess with 
idle fear.' 

vatem : i. e. ' thy proplietic power.' 

443. cura tibi : supply si< ; 'be it thy task.' 
divom : for genitive see 1. 58, note. 

444. fTlie best reading here is the future gerent, because 
it more exactly reproduees tlie Humeric phrase Tr6Xefj.os 5' 
dvbpeaai fieXrjaei, Iliad vi. 492. There is another reading, 
gerant, ' let men . . .' 

viri: strongly opposed to women, therefore not hornines. 
(jerent is another instance of zeugma, although tlie word does 
occur rarely with pax. 

quis = quibus : dative of agent. 

445. exarsit in iras, 'blazed forth into wrath.' 

446. oranti: an old use of the word = 'speaking,' for 
which cf. X. 96 'talibus oravit luno.' Tlie dative is used, 
as often in Vergil, where the genitive might have been 


447. deri^iere, ' grew fixed ' or " stiff.' Cf. iii. 259-60 
'gclidus lorniiilinc sanguis deriguit.' 

tot : cf. 1. 329. 

448. tanta, ' so hugc a shapo is dlscloscd.' Thn Fury, 
who as an ohl ■\vunian liad shrunk in sizo, now roturns to 
lior own superliumau proi^ortions. Tho gods were considered 
taller than inankind. Cf. ii. 591-3 (of Venus) ' confessu 
deam, qualisque vidcri caclicolis ct quanta solet.' 

449. With thc participhs ^upply 'rununu. 
cuuctantem et quaerentem dicere plura, ' as hc strovo 

witli faltering li])s to say niore.' 

450. crinibus : her hair was composcd of snakes, and of 
them sho raised two, not to use as a whiji, hut to increase 
the horror of her forni. 

451. verberaque insonuit, 'cracked her whip.' The ac- 
cusative is tliat of cxtcnt of action of tho verb. Usual caso 
would be the abl. We have already (1. 12) had resonare used 
with an accusative. 

452-3. Cf. 11. 440-2. 

454. haec, ' this iny furni.' The deictic uso of the jironoun. 
Hacc refers to her dread shape, snakes, whip, &c. 
dirarum : cf. 1. 324. 
455' ' War, death, destruction in niy hand I bear.' 
— J)ryden.) 

456. iuveni ^ ad iuvenem. Cf. 1. 346, note. 
atro, ' lurid.' 

457. fixit : of courso it is implied that the torch does 
110 moi-e physical harm to Turnus than tho snako had done 
to Amata. Tliere is no idca of wounding. 

458. olli = illi : an archaic form comm<ni in Vergil in the 
dative singular, and rarcly found as nominativc plural, 
c. g. 1. 505. It is gcnerally first word in the line or sentejice. 

rumpit = fiifjaf, ' puts to flight.' 

ossaque et artus : wo should say ' his limbs to the 
bonc. ' 

459. proruptus: middle, ' bursting forth.' 

sudor: a similar dcscription is given (.iii- i75^ where 
Aeneas sees a vision of the Penatcs : when ho awoke — 
' gclidus toto manabat eorpore sudor.' 

460. fremit is another instance of an iutransitivo verb 
taking a cognate accusative. 

arma amens oecurs iii. 307. 

toro : ancient heroes hung their swords at their bed- 

461. insania, ' mad ^^assion.' 

NOTES 107 

462. snper: adverbial, like the more usual htsujHr, ' to 
crowu all.' — (Conington.) Craving for war is intensified by 
wrath at tlie prosjicctivo loss of Lavinia. 

lua^no . . , sonore, 'loud roaring,'ablative of attendant 

463. virg^ea : i. e. the flame caused by burniug a lieap of 

464. exsiiltant is used (iii. 557) of the seething water 
rouud Aetna, ' exsultantque vada atque aestu miscentur 

aquai is an old genitive. Tliere are three older forms 
than tlie common -ae. (i) aes, which is found mainly iu 
inscriptions on tombs, e. g. luliaes = luliae ; (,2) -us, e. g. 
pater, mater, fiUus, filia familias ; (3) -ai, common in Lucretius, 
and used four times by Vergil, viz. aquai, aulai, aurai, pictai. 
Tliere is anotlier reading, aquae vis. 

465. alte, ' high in foam surges the water.' The use of 
amnis for aqua is meant to lend dignity to a commonpU\ce 

466. se capit, ■ can contain itself no more,' i. e. boils 

vapor = ' steam.' Observe the rhytlim of the line, wliich 
is made up of six dissyllables and four monosynables, to 
express the boiling puffing steam. 'Black vapours climb 
aloft, and cloud the day' is Dryden's amplification of 
the line. 

467. polluta pace: the peacc liad uot been broken by 
Latinus, but, in intent, by Turnus, who purposed to invade 
Latium as a foe of botli Latinus and Aeneas. polluta = liolata : 
it is used of outraging hospitality, iii. 61 ' linqui pollutuni 

468. indicit is the techuical word for proclaiming war, 
1. 616, and is often used by Yergil, wlio loved to bring in 
contemporary customs. So in iii. 264 we find 'meritosque 
indicit honores,' 'he enjoins due offerings,' from the use 
inclicere supplicationem = 'to enjoin public prayer. ' 

primis = ducibus. 

parari : accusative and infinitive after iuhet. In 1. 469 
the same construction is continued in the active, with 
a change of subject ; ' lie bids arms be prepared, aud bids 
them defend,' &c. For a similar change see iii. 60-1 

' omnibus idem animus, scelerata excedere terra, 
linqui pollutum hospitium et dare classibus Austros.' 

470. se : the coustruction turns into Oratio Obliqua 


without any verb to introduce it, a construction common 
botli in Latin anil Greek. It is easy to supply dicit, or 
tho likc, from iuhet. 

satis = parem, ' a match for.' Notice tho hypermetric 
line, que being elided before the following line. Sce I. i6o, 

471. For the tense of dedit sce 11. 323, 406. 

in vota, ' to hear his vows.' Notico the doublo allitera- 

473. liunc . . . hunc, '0110 . . . another,' toi' /jiiv . . . tuv de. 
formae . . . atque iuventae is probably a hendiadys, 

•youthful beauty.' 

474. atavi veges : supply movent : concrete for abstract, 
ancestral kings — his royal ancestry. 

factis : descriptive ablativc ; 'a hand of fanious deeds' 
= ' tho famous dccds of his hand.' 

476. alis : seo 1. 408. 

477. arte nova : a third wile, different from those she 
had already employed. 

q.uo litore : litore meroly repeats locum, much as in 
1. 409 urhcDi is a variation of muros. 

478. ' With snarcs aud with the chase was hunting 
boasts.' This is practically a zeugma, for agito can only 
refor strictly to ctirsu. 

479. canibus : dativo after ohicit. 

rabiem : a rcgular word of dogs on the scent. Cf. rabidac, 

1. 493- 

480. noto : tho smcll of a stag. 

481. agerent: (he sequencc here is quite regular, because 
obicil is historic present and thorefore ranks as a secondary 

quae, 'this deod,' attracted, as usual, to the gendcr of 
tho following noun. 

flaborum is the best reading, being a word often used 
by Vergil for There is another reading, mcdorum. 

482. bello: Vergilian dalive = in hdlum. 
animos accendere is repeated 1. 550. 
agrestes — ugristlitm. 

483. forma praestanti = ' of surpassing beauty ' ; ablativo 
of quulity. 

cornibus ing^ens is a rofinemcnt on cornihtis ingentihus. 

484. Tyrrhidae causos tho chango of Tyrrltus to Tijrrhcus 
\n 1. 485, as, if Tgrrhus wcro read, the patronymic would 
l>e Tgnludue. In ii. 82, it is true, we find BeUdac from 
a nominative Bdus, but this is very rare, and does not 

NOTES 109 

justify Tyrrhus liere, althoiigli it has good mamiscript sup- 

485. nutribant --^ nuiriihanf : this archaic impei-fect oeeurs 
occasionally elsewliere in Vergil. Cf. 790 ; iv. 528 ; vi. 468 ; 
X. 538. 

cui regia parent armenta : simply = ' the royal herds- 

487. adsuetum imperiis, 'accnstomed to her bidding.' 

soror : i. e. of tho Tyrrhidae, not of Tyrrheus, although 
he was the hist mentioned. 

omni . . . cura is explained by intexens corniia sertis in the 
next line. 

489. ferum, ' the wild creatui'e,' not a very happy expres- 
sion here, as Vergil is laying stress on the stag's tameness. 
For this use of tlie adjective as noun cf. ii. 51, where it is 
applied to tlie Trojan horse. 

490. mauum : it is safer to take this as accusative singular 
governcd hy patiens used partieipially, but it is also possible 
to hioli upon it as a contracted genitive pkii-al = manuum, 
on tlie analogy of currum = cmruum, vi. 653. In that case 
paticns will be an adjective. Either way the expression 

= mansuetus, Gk. x^^pov^V^- Notice the repetition of adsuetus 
after 1, 487, and see note on 11. 423-4. 

492. ipse ^ 'of hisown accord,' i. e. without needingdriving. 
domum : the usual accusative of motion. 

quamvis: in its original meaning 'however.' Even 
wlien it = ' altliough ' it is generally possible to get the 
former meaning out of the sentence. 

493. raMdae : notice the gender of canes. Hunting dogs 
are nearly always feminine. 

494. commovere, ' started.' 

fluvio . . . secundo = ' with (down) the stream ' ; ' up 
stream ' = Jluvio adverso. 

495. Commovere must be taken with the whole of this line, 
not only with deflueret, which would make the rest of the 
line absurd. The stag was tloating down stream or resting 
on the bank alternately, aud Vergil has not told us which 
he was doing when the hounds started him. 

ripa : probably local ablative. 

497. Ascanius : other name of Iidus. 
cornu, ' bow.' 

498. erranti = ita ut erraret, pi'oleptic use of the adjective, 
that is to say, it anticipatos the effect produced by the 
action of the vcrb. Cf. iii. 141 ' steriles exurere agros ' = ' burn 
the fields to barrenness.' 


deus is fitlier nn imitation of the Greek «i and t) 6(6^, or 
is a v;igu(' general torm = Divinc powor ' tu Ouoi^. Cf. 
ii. 632. 

499. 'Through bolly and through flank sped the shaft.' 
Compare the description of Laocoon hurling his spear at the 
wooden horse, ii. 50-2 : 

' liastam 
in latus inque feri curvam compagibus alvum 
sonitu is ablative of attendant cireumstaneos. 
501. stabulis : not its stall only, but the homestead genei-- 
ally. Cf. 1. 512. 

questu Avith replebat, ' fillod witli moans.' 

503. percussa lacertos : for this use of the middle with 
tlie accusativo sce Appendix. lacertus — ' the upper arm,' 
above the elbow. 

504. duros : the usual opithet of countrymen. 
conclamat, ' summons by her cry.' 

505. olli : horo nominative plural ; soe I. 458, note ; take 
it with iniprovisi adsimt, pestis . . . silvis being parenthetical. 

pestis, ' the Fury.' 

506. improvisi: i. e. sooner than Silvia expected. 
hic . . . liic : u niv . . . o Se. 

torre . . . obusto, 'fire-hardoned stake.' 

507. stipitis hic gfravidi nodis : literally ' with the knots 
of a hoavystake,' a Vergilian rcfinement on ' a stake knotted 
and theroforo hoavy.' 

gravidi is almost equivalent io ileni. 
cuique: dative of agont. See I. 412, note. 
repertum : fst must be supplied. Notico the tense, for 
wlii<-h compare I. 87, note. 

508. rimanti, ' as lio gropes.' 

teltim ira facit : cf. i. 150 ' furor arma ministrat.' 
vocat, ' choers on to the fight.' 

509. quadrifidam : }iroloptic (seo 1. 498 with scindchat, 
' was howing into four parts.' 

cuneis . . . coactis, ' with wedges driven togothor.' 
ut forte, 'as ho chancod'= theGreekws trvxf, with tlio 

510. rapta spirans immane securi, ' snatched his axe 
l^anting witli fury.' immane, noiitor adjoctive used as adverb, 
for which soe noto on torvnm, I. 399. 

511. -And now the goddoss, oxorcised in ill, 

Who watched an hour to work her impious will.' 



512. petit, 'm;ikes for.' 

513. pastorale . . . sigrntim : the signal of danger, at tlie 
sound of ■svhicli the shepherds would assem))le to help. This 
signal wouUl be givcn with a horn. 

cornu = the Intcina, ' a kind of horn formed in spiral 
twists, like the shell of the fi&h out of which it was origin- 
ally made. It was commonly used by swine- and iieat- 
herds to collect their droves from the woods, by the niglit 
watch, and, in carly times, to summon tlie Quirites to the 
assembly. As a military bugle it was of ditierent form, 
having a larger mouth made of metal, and bent round 
underneath.' — {Dictlonary 0/ Antiguities, Ricli.) 

514. intendit with cornu, ' on tlie curved horn slie strained 
her hellish voice.' 

protinus: either ' onward,' of place, or 'forthwith,' of 

515. ' The grove shook and the woods echoed to their 

profundae with insonuere. 

516. Notice the emphatic repetition of audiit. 

Triviae : the goddess worshipped where three ways 
meet was Diana, identified with tlie moon, and Avith Hecate 
in the shades. Her ?«a<s is the lake Nemi near Aricia, where 
she had a temple and grove. 

517. Nar : see Vocabulary of Proper Names. 

albus : because of the amount of sulphur in the water. 

Velini : a lake in the mountains above Reate, quite 
seventy miles from where this scene is supposed to have 
taken place. 

519. ad vocem, 'at the sound.' vox is used commonly of 
tlie bugle, horn, and tiute. Cf. iii. 669 * ad sonitum vocis 
vestigia torsit.' 

bucina: see note, 1. 513. 

qua : not ^ ' where,' but referring to vocem. 

521. indomiti : rather like duri, 1. 504, ' hardy.' 
pubes: followed by singular verb, as the action is tliat 

of a united body. Cf. 1. 106, &c. 

522. ' Poured forth aid to Ascanius through the camp's 
open gates.' 

Ascanio : dative of advantage. 

auzilium: aocusative, not nominative in apposition to 

523. direxere : the subject is puhes et agricolae ; if it only 
referred to the former, aciem would have been used. 

certamine : ablative of attendant circumstances. 


524. For tlieso wcapons scc 11. 506-7: ilic xuditnis civv tln 
samf as tlie torre . . . obusto. 

praeiistis: notice the scansion, tlio ae being shortened 
beforc a vowcl. 

525-6. ancipiti = ' doulilo-odgod.' 

atraque late horrescit strictis seges ensibus, ' bla< k 
afar bristlos tho corn-field with drawn swords,' i.e. 'thcro 
bristlcs a black crop of drawn swords.' Vergilian rofinc- 
ment. scges includos both tho field and the crop. 

527. sole, ' smittcn by thc sun flashes the bionzc and 
throws thc light to the clouds.' 

aera — 'lirazcn armour.' 

lacessita is takcn from Lucretius, iv. 217 ' corpora quao 
feriant oculos visumque lacessant.' 

*But now, both parties reinforced, thc ficlds 
Are briglit witli flaming swords and brazen shields ; 
A shining harvcst either host displays, 
And shoots against thc sun with oqual rays.' 


528. fprimo . . . vento, * as the wind is rising.' There is 
another roading, po»to, ' on the edge of the sea.' 

530. Comparo ii. 419 ' imo Noreus ciet aequora fundo ' ; 
ablative of place whencc. 

ad aethera: as in Psalm cvii. 26 • They are cavried up 
to the hoavcn, and down again to thc dcop.' 

531. primam ante aciem, ' among tho skirmishers,' cv 

sagitta : to ))c taken with sternifur. 

532. fuerat: thc pluperfect is used, because by his deatli 
he had coased to bc the eldest, at all ovents among the living. 
Others take it = eraf, tho plupcrfect being commonly used 
in verse for the imperfect. 

maximus : i. c. maximns natn, ' oldost.' 
Almo : it is worth rcmarking that Vergil not unfre- 
quently uscs the namcs of rivers as nion's names. Cf, 

II- 535, 745- 

533. haesit : tho proper word to indicate that tho weapon 
stuck in the wound. 

vulnus is uscd licre instead of tlie shaft wbich makcs 
tho wound. Cf. ii. 529 ' infesto vulnero Pyrrhus insequitur.' 

udae: ti'ansfcrrod (pithct, it is tlic throat, not the 
voico, that is wct. 

534. inclusit ^ 'cut off,' for the morc usual inter- or 

NOTES 113 

teuueni . . . vitam, ' tlio failing broat]i of life': vita 
licro ^ aiiima, •l)roath of life.' 

535. corpora multa : supply siemuntur. 
virum : cf. 1. 58. 

Galaesus : seo 1. 532, notc. 

536. paci: dative of purpose = «rf pacew /acienda)». 
medium contains tho icleas of intervening between the 

fighting lines, and of mediating. In tho latter xise it is 
more often followed by the genitive ; ' threw himself between 
the lines to urge peace.' 

se ofFert we have hacl already, 1. 420. 

uuus strengthens the superlative ; ' upright boyond all 
men,' a sense in which the word frequently occurs in such 
expressions aa unus maxinie oiiuiium. sohis is used in the 
same way, and in Gi-eek <rs. Cf. ii. 426-7 : 

' Rhipeus, iustissimus unus 
qui fuit in Teucris et servantissimus aec£ui.' 

537. ditissimus arvis apparently means 'most rich in 
lands,' in primitive times land being tlie sign of wealth. 
Elsewhere, however, dives in this .sense takes tho genitive. 
Cf. ii. 22 ' dive.s opum.' There is another reading, agris, 
which might be local ablative. 

538. illi, ' for his benefit.' 

balautum: literally ' bleating ones,' i. e. sheep. 
ciuiua ajjparently = quinque, and only used to avoid 

reditoant : i. e. from the fields to the farm. 

539. vertetaat: comparc 11. 725-6 ' vertunt . . . rastris.' 

540. aequo . . . Marte, ' in iindecided strife,' a common 
jihrase even in prose. Notice the use of Mars = battle, as 
Bacchus = wine, Cet-es = corn, Venus — love, &c. 

dum . . . geruntur : the proper tense with dmn 'while' is 
always thc present, if the time of the dum clause is longer 
than that of tlie principal clause. 

541. promissi dea facta potens, 'the goddess, her promise 
performed.' Potens is frequently used with the genitive = 
'governing,' ' mastering,' e. g. ' di maris et terrae tempesta- 
tumque potentes,' iii. 528, from which comes the meaning 
here ' having put into force,' Greek tjKparfis -ffvonivrj. 
Vergil has been copied by Valerius Flaccus, vi. 680 ' incepti 
iam luno jjotens.' 

542. imbuit probably = 'begin,' the secondary meaning 
of the word, but at the same time the primary meaning 


embnie inust not hc lost sight of. We liiul tlie lattir iii 

1- 554- 

primae commisit funera pug^nae, 'mati-liccl tlicm in 
thc first clcadly fight.' a^mmiltcre is tlic technical terni for 
matcliing a pair of gladiators, but Vergil was also thinking 
of committere pugyiam, ' to join ))attle.' 

funera pugnae is a Vergilian refinement on /unestam 

543. fconversa. If tlie reading is sonnd coyiversa must 
mcan ' tui'ning licr fiight through thc air of licaven,' a 
sliortened form of ' conversa ct evecta pcr auras.' Anothcr 
reading is convexa, which would have to be taken as in 
opposition to auras, a very far-fetclicd construction. Probably 
a line has droppeci out, 

544. victrix : in the broad sensc ' triunipluintly.' For 
a similar vise comparc ii. 329 'victorciuc Sinon incendia 
miscct,' and iii. 439 ' sic deniquc victor Trinacria fines Italos 
mittere relicta.' 

545. perfecta= ' bruuglit to fulfilment.' 
tibi : dative of advantage, ' tliou hast.' 

546. ' Bid tliem come together in friendshij)^ and join in 
treaty.' Ironical remark. The subjunctives arc jussivo 
depending on dic. 

5-1 8. hoc is what follows, his what precedes. 

certa: supply est : ' if thy favour is assured me,' a prosy 
and unnecessary remark. 

550. accendam : we have had the same use I. 482. 
insani: cf. insania belli, 1. 461. 

551. auxilio : dative of purpose or predicative dative, 
usually joined witli a dative of the person interested. This 
use is confined to the singular. Cf. cordi, 1. 326. 

552. contra, ' in reply.' 

terrorum: partitive gcnitive after abunde, a rare and 
lato uso. Quintilian has cdmmle salis= ' plenty of wit.' 

553. stant, 'stand fast.' Stare is uscd in tho pocts as 
almost equivalent to esse with the added notion of fixity. 
So wo find sentcntia stat, ' my purpose is fixed,' and etat 
impcrsonally with the same force. sedere is u.sed in a similar 
way. Cf. 1. 368. 

pugnatur : impcr.sonally, ' the figlit rages.' 

554. 'The arms tliat chanco first gave, fresli blood lias 
dyed.' Tirnna — adverb. 

imbuit: sco I. 542, n<>te. 

555. Notice tlic rare rhythm of thc socond foot, and tlic 
four-syllable cnding, for which cf. 1. 344, &o. 

NOTES 115 

celebrent : optative subjunetivc. 

556. egregiixm, ' peerltss,' ironical. 

557. super aetherias : suptr here practifally = 2^er, but is 
used as lie is speaking of an elevated place. aetlurias gene- 
rally of tlie upper air, in wliich the gods live and niove, 
here of the atmosphere. 

licentius: the coniparative = ' too,' 'more than you 

558. Fater ille = 'that great father,' 'Juppiter on high.' 
Tenuyson, Demeter : 'He who still is highest.' Cf. 1. iio and 
ii. 779. 

velit : apodosis of a vague future condition (would not 
consent), with the protasis (if he were to hear of it) omitted. 

559. cede locis, ' hence ! ' 

super . . . est = superest : an exami^le of Tmesis (cutting, 
by which tlie parts of a compound word are separated, Cf. 
ii. 567 ' super unus eram.' It is especially common with 
compounds of cumque. 

fortuna laborum = ' crisis in the trouble.' — (Papillon^, 
i. e. if any chance presents itself in the war, I will manage 
for inyself. 

560. dederat: tliere is no force in the pluperfect, for 
wliich the perfect is often found in similar contexts. 

561. illa: Allecto. 

alas : we have not been told before of the snakes in the 
fury's wings. 

562. Cocyti . . . sedem, ' her abode Cocytus.' Genitive of 
definition. Cf. 1. 317. 

563. medio : cf. iii. 354 ' aulai medio libabant pocula 
Bacchi.' See 1. 59. Geographically tho word must not be 
forced here. The locus was in the country of tlie Hirpini, 
east of Naples, and may be considered in the middle of 
Italy taken from east to west, not from north to south. 

565. Ampsancti valles. The proper name means ' sacred 
on allsides' (amp = ambi = ' a\l around'\ or ' fenced round.' 
Conington describes it as a sniall pool, 20 by 30 paces in 
size. ' The water bubbles with an explosion like distant 
thunder. On one side of it is a . . . rapid stream of blackish 
water rushing into it from under a barren, rocky hill. 
Through apertures in the ground above come warm blasts 
of sulphuretted hydrogen gas.' 

vaUeB =iallis, nominative singular. 
hunc refers back to locus. 

566. urguet, 'hcmsin.' 

latus nemoris, "a wooded slope.' 

1 2 


medio : i. c. nemore: local ablative. 
fragosTis : both ' roaring,' and ' broken.' 

567. saxis et torto vertice : litorally = ' with stones and 
wliirlin,;^ eddy,' i. e. as thc eddies wliirl aniong tlic stones. 

568. Notice the gcndcr of specus, wliicli is iisually mascu- 
line : in ohl Latin it was feminine. Here it mcans 'hollow,' 
and rcfcrs to tlie pooh 

Ditis : Dis is tlie sanic na pater Pliiton, ]. 327. 

569. monstrantiir : probaldy niiddlc, ' niect thc sight.' 
ruptoqiie, &c., 'a miglity gulf wlicrc Acheron bursts 

fnrtli.' Tlie abhitivo absolutc and tlic aldativc of instrumcnt 
are liere indistinguishable. Cf. ii. 416 ' rupto turbine,' ' when 
a squall bursts.' 

570. = quibus, ' whercin.' 

tcondita : with tliis reading Eririys is in apposition to 
invisum nmnen. Tlicrc isavariant, coiulit, with whicli imisum 
numen may be object, or se may bc supi^lied. 

571. levabat, ' relieved ' of licr iircsencc, or by lier de- 
parture. Tlie impcrfect marlvs that tlie effect of tlie action 
continues aftcr it is pcrformed. The world fclt the relicf 
long after the Fury had gone. 

572., nec minus interea is a frequcnt Vergilian phrase to 
denote a cliange of sccne or subject. 

extremani witli manum, ' the hist (finishing) touch.' 
bello is dative altcr tlic in of iniponit. 

574. ex acie, 'from the battle-line,' i.e. the agricolac wcre 
routed and took to fiight. 

caesos agi-ees with the two, Aimonem and focdati ora 

reportant : plural witli the collective noun numerus, 
wliicli in 1. 573 took tho singular ruit. The whole body fled 
as 0110 man, while some of tliem carry back the dead. 
Cf. ii. 31-2 : 

' pars stupet innuptao donum cxitialc Minervae, 
et molem mirantur equi.' 

575. foedati, 'maiTcd,' i. e. manglcd, wounded. For tliis 
u^c comparc ii. 286, of Hector, ' quao causa iudigna screnos 
focdavit vultus.' Tlie wholc phraso is a periphrasis for 

focdata ora CUCacsi, but lays more empliasis on tlio face, tlio 
nianglcd pait. 

576. If obtestantur is niore than an appeal for aid, it 
must mcan ' call Latinus to witness the violation of tho 
pcace by the Trojans.' 

NOTES 117 

577. fmedioque in crimine caedis et ig°ui. If the read- 

ing is right, as seems iirobahle, tliis must be translated 'in. 
the midst of the fiery outcry against the bloodslied,' crimine 
and igni being a hendiadys, and /3)11= ■transports of rage,' 
a use for wliieli see ii. 575 ' exarsere ignes animo.' Tliere is 
another reading, ignis, which as genitive after terrorem will 
give an inferior sense. 

578. terrorem : i. e. of Latinus. 
ingeminat: by liis threats and reproaches. 

in reg-na, 'to share the realm.' 'This use of in is very 
common witli voco. Cf. iii. 222-3 : 

'divos ipsumquo vocamus 
in partem pi-aedamque lovem.' 

vocari : accusative and infinitive aftcr a verb to be 
supplied from terrorem ingeminat. 

579. admisceri : sujiply Latinis. 

Phrygiam : a contemptuous word, carrying witli it an 
idea of oriental effeminacy. 

limine : aVdative of separation. 

580. quorum : supply ii as subject. 

attonitae : a word frequently iised to describe divine 
inspiration. Cf. vi. 53 of the Sibyl, ' attonitae magna ora 
domus.' Take it closely with Baccho. 

nemorum avia : accusativo after the intransitive verb 
insultant ; ' bound along tho pathless woods,' a Greek con- 
struction {nrjSiiifra-n-iSia'), for which comj)are iii. 191 'currimus 

matres : not only mothers, but wives and other femalo 

581. thiasis ^ ' troops of revellers' or 'Bacchic dances.' 
leve nomen, ' is tlie name of Amata of light account ? ' 

i.e. through her influence the women had followed her, and 
the men were roused to fight. 

582. MartemcLue fatig^ant : this may have two meanings, 
(i) Call upon Mars till he is wearied of their impoi-tunity ; 
(2) ' Call, Mars, Mais,' i. e. War, War ! Martem being a 
cognate accusative. (i) is i^referable. 

583. ilicet was the phrase used in dismissing an assembly, 
' you can go.' Ire licet or i licet From the idea of motion 
came that of speed, so that the word came to mean ' at 
once, straightway.' 

omina : the bees and the altar flames. 

584. fata deum: the reply of the oracle of Faunus, 1, 96, 
perverso numine. Take perverso as = maligno, i. e. under 


a malign influence. (So Conington.) Others niake perverso 
numine = contitrbafa voluntate diruiit, 'aeting against (thwarting") 
tho will of heaven.' The fornior viow is better as hiying 
stross on tho fact that they aro not free agents. 

587. Some editors think 11. 587-90 to he an interpolation, 
whilo others helieve thoy aro a rough draft meant to be 
rovised subsequontly. But the repotition and amplification 
are not unlike Vergil, who frequontly borrows from and 
dovel(jps Homer. 

588. miiltis circum latrantibus undis. The ablative 
absolute is concossive, ' Altbough many waters roararound.' 
For the use ot latrare cf. iii. 432 'Scyllam ot caeruleis canibus 
resonantia saxa.' 

588-9. sese . . . mole tenet: with mole supply sua. 'Holds 
itsolf })y its own mass.' ' Proppcd on himself he stands.' — 
(Diyden.) Comparo the description of Mozentius, x. 770-1 : 

' manet imperterritus ille, 
Hostem magnanimum opperiens, et mole sua stat.' 

scopuli: sharp poaks or crags. 
circum: for tlie repotition cf. 11. 423-4. 

590. saxa : the smallor rocks at tho foot of the riqjes. 
laterique inlisa refunditur alg^a, ' and the seaweed 

dashed against the side is swopt back.' laieri, dative aftor 
< lie //! of in'isfi. 

591. caecum, ' blind,' i. e. without plan or forosight. The 
usos of tbis word are varied and interesting : (i~ 'blind' ; 
(2) 'blind in mind or soul ' ; (3) 'blind' in the sense of 
aimless, random ; often with words of foaring; (4") passivoly 
= ' that which cannot be soon,' dark, concealed ; (5) of that 
wliich obscures the sight, thick, obscure ; so often with nox, 
(enebrae,&e. ; (6) blind = doubtful ; so with casws, /or^MXrt ; (7) 
applied to the hoaring and sound, with clanior, inurmKr, &.c. 

potestas has tlio forco of possum and takos a similar 
infinitivo ; tho gorundive would lie more usual. Cf. iii. 670 
' vorum ubi nulla datur dextra aflfectare potostas.' 

592. nutu, *iiod' =^ numinc, ' will.' 

eunt, 'go on their course.' Notice the monosyllahie 
ending : seo Introduction, iv. 

593. multa: adverbial accusative. 

auras . . . inanes : this phrase includes two uses of inanix, 
(i) 'emply,' a common epithot of aura ; (s^ ' vain,' roforring 
moro oxactly to his prayers. Cf. Shakospoaro, 'aiul tronl)le 
doaf hoaven with my bootless crios.' 

594. Cf. ii. J3 ' fracti bollo fatisquo roimlsi.' 

NOTES 119 

ferimur, ' we are dra^ged along.' 

595. has . . . poenas, • pniiishment for tliis.' Cf. 1. 383, 

sacrileg^o : becanse in demanding war the Trojans were 
despising the exiiressed will of the gods. 

596. The repeated te lays stress on the ringleader. 
uefas, ' the fate that sin brings." Cf. ii. 229 • scelus 

expendisse merentem Laocoonta fei-unt.' Others take it in 
apposition to Turne, 'thou, sin incarnate.' 
triste : gi'im or dread ; cf. tristis Erinys. 

597. seris is the empliatic word. 'And pray to Heaven 
for peace, but pray too hite.' — (Dryden." 

For veuerabere see iii. 34 'Nymphas venerabar agrestes.' 

598. parta : supplj' est. 

milii: dative of agent ; see 1. 412, note. ' Vobis parta 
quies,' iii. 495. 

omuiscLue in limine portus. This is very difiieult, 
and iiiay be exphiined in three different ways. i) Supply 
sum and take portus as genitive, 'I am altogether on the 
thresliold of my harbour.' Objections to this are the rare 
omission of sk»;, and tlie absence of any defining word with 
portus = haven of rest. (2) Supply est, and take portus as 
nominative, ' all my harbour is at hand.' Here objections 
are the use of omnis, and the meaning ' at hand ' for in 
limine, which cannot be found elsewhere. (3) Omit any 
stop at portus and inake spolior principal verb, ' I have won 
rest, and now on the threshold of the haven, am robbed 
of a happy death.' Perhaps this is the most satisfactory, 
although it requires us to insert an emphatic ' only ' with 
' happy death.' Compare Anchises' remark ii. 646 ' facilis 
iactura sepulcri/ 'a light niatter is the loss of burial,' 
a much stronger saying than that of Latinus here. 

600. rerum . . . habenas, 'tlie reins of power,' only to be 
taken of the eonduct of tlie war, for we find Latinus in tlie 
futurc still acting as king. 

6or. mos : an anachronism according to Livy, who dates 
the eustom from the days of Numa. 

protinus, ' in unbroken order,' i. e. without break from 
tlie days of Aeneas to those of Augustus. 

602. Albanae: Alba is looked upon as intermediate between 
Latium and Rome. Possibly tliere is here a reference tr) 
the Alban colonies. 

maxima reruni : a simplc, stately phrast^. ' queen of tlie 

603. prima : adverbial. 


moveut: construrtion according to the stnso, liomanl 
heing siipj)li(Hl from Boma. ' Movc Mars forth to Avar,' is 
a Vergilian refinemont on tho common arma moventur. 

604. Getis (dative after infcrre). Tho reference is to a 
successful attack on the tribes living on the banuho 
boundary by Lentulus in 25 b.c. manu adds an idca of 

lacrimabile bellum : a Homeric phrase ; ■nvkefj.ov Sa- 

605. Hyrcauis : a roferenco to somo expedition against 
the tribcs soutli of the Caspian. 

Arabis (from Arnhns, instead of the usual Arah.';) refors 
to tlio expedition of Aelius Gallus into Arabia Felix, 24 b. c. 
Notice tlie clinnge from sive to ve and again to seu. Indos 
is used indefinitely for the far East ; but the ludians aro 
said to have bcon moved to send an embassy to Augustus at 
the time of liis Parthian succosses. 

606. Auroramque sequi, ' foHow tho Dawn,' i. e. go to the 
furthest pai-ts of the East. 

Parthos: Crassus in B.c. 53 liad been defeated and 
killed at Carrhae in Mosopotamia by tlio Parthians, and liis 
standards liad been taken liy the enemy, a cause of much 
jjatriotic sorrow to Roman poets. Augustus in 20 is. c. liad 
succeeded in sccuring tlieir return. 

Farthos . .. sigrna: doublo accusative with reposcere, 
as with verbs of teaching, hiding, &c. 

607. portae : of tho so-called Templo of .Janus, wluch was 
really only a passage with a gate at each end, and a statue 
of tho god inside. 

608. relig-ione: cf. 1. 172. It is explained hy formidine 
Martis, ' tho dread presence of Mars.' 

609. centum: indefinite of a largc number, as in 1. 539. 
aerei : dissyllable by synizosis. Cf. 1. 33, &c. 
aeternaque ferri rotoora, 'the everlasting might of 

iron,' i. o. solid Ijars of iron, a reminiscence of Lucretius. 

610. lanus : cf. 1. 180. 

6ri. has: an anacoluthon, i. c. a sontence begun in ono 
waj' and finished in another not in grammatical agreemont 
with the first. Hero has has nothing tu agrco with, and is 
subsequcnlly roplaced by limina. 

certa with sedet, ' is firmly fixed." For scdet cf. 1. 368, 

612. Quirinali : cf. I. 187. 

Gabino : tlio cinctus Gahinus was a disposition of tlio 
toga witli ono end tightly encircling the body, wbilc (lif 

NOTES 121 

head was covered by another part. Wliy it was connected 
with Gabii is unknown. The abhntives are descriptive after 


613. reserat, ' iinbars tlie creaking doors.' 

liniina = forcs : cf. ii. 480 • bipenni limina perrumpit.' 

614. vocat : apparently tlie idea is of calling out war 
from witliin the oponed doors. 

sequitur either ' takes up tlie ciy ' (Conington), or a 
reference to the consul's words, ' Let him Avho wishes for 
the safety of the state follow me ! ' 

615. ' And the loud trumpets break the jiehling skies' is 
Dryden's rhetorical and inaccurate version. 

616. hoc : with M!ore. 

et tum : i. c. on this partieular occasion, in addition to 
the general practice. 

iudicere : cf. 1. 468, note. 

617. iube^batur. Vergil has transferied the necessarj- 
conscnt of the Roman assembly before war could be declared 
to the paternal absolutism of early days. Contrast 11. 266, 

618. tactu: i. e. from touching the doors of the temple. 
refugit is transitive, 'shrank from.' 

619. foeda : because to Latinus the war was infmidum, 

1. 583- 

caecis : see I. 591, note. Local ablative. 

umbris : i. e. the most retired corner of his palace. 

620. deiim : see I. 58. 

delapsa : the usual word of a god descending from 

621. ipsa manu: as usual cmphasizing the agent. Cf. 
I. 127, note. 

cardineverso : cf. iii. 448. Although translated 'hinge,' 
the cardo was not at all like the modern hinge. It consisted 
of a pivot and socket, by means of which a door was made to 
open and shut. Pivots were fastened to the top and bottom 
of the door-Ieaf, while sockets were let into the door-sill 
and lintel for the jjivots to turn in. — {piciioiuinj of Anfiquities.) 

622. This line is taken fi-om Ennius, who has ' Belli 
ferratos postes portasque refregit.' The slow spondaic line 
is meant to represent the slow movement of the heavy door. 
For the sense compare ii. 480-1, of Pyrrhus breaking into 
Priam's palace — ' limina perrumpit, postesque a cardine 
vellit aeratos.' 

623. Notice tho alliteration : 'ablaze is Ausonia, afore- 
time unroused, unmoved.' For the t of inexcita ef. 1. 642. 


The simple verb niakes citiis, and excUus, concUus, and ^^erclttis, 
are all found, wliih' acdhis occurs once only. 

624. Hero tlifc alliteration is even more noticeable. The 
construction pars arduus is exceedingly strange. Pars is 
treated as though it were masculine because it refers to 
miles. Possibly Vergil meant to writo eques to balance ;)trfcs, 
and then left arduux after changing the construction. Join 
altis rfjuis and ardaus. 

625. pulverulentus is to be taken with furit, ' rage in 
clouds of dust.' 

626. Notice hero that pars takcs a phiral verb, to hiy 
stress on the individual actions. 

leves (notico tho long e) and lucida arc proleptic — ' to 
smoothness,' and * to brightness.' 

Tlie clipeus was the large round shield carried by the 
first-class men among the Romans, until it was abolished 
iii favour of tlie oblong scutum. 

627. arviua : the fat lietween the skin and the fiesh, 
a very rare word only occurring here in good Latiii. 

subig-uut — ' whet.* 

628. signa ferre -^ ' advance the standards.' 

sonitus = 'trumpets' bray.' The tul)a was a bronzc 
trumpet with a funnel-shaped mouth and a straight tube, 
giving out loud and interrupted notes. — {Dictionary 0/ Anti. 

629. adeo: for this use cf. 1. 427, note. In iii. 203 we 
find ' tres adeo . . . soles erramus,' 'three long days we 

630. novant: probably = ' forgo new arms,' .TJtliough it 
miglit mean 'renew old arms.' For all the following names 
see Vocabulary of Projjer Names. 

Atina was a Volscian, not a Latin town. 
Tibur is called superbum because of its proud position 
on both )),inks of tlie Anio. 

631. Ardea : cf. 11. 411-2, note. 

Crustumeri: Vergil has used the name of the inhabit- 
ants becauso that of the town, Crustumerium or Crustu- 
meria, could not be got into hexameter verse. Notice the 
Gieek liiatus and spondaic ending. For the former comparo 
11. 178, 226, and for both iii. 74 ' Nereidum matri etNeptuno 

632. Notice alliteration. For tegmina . . . capitiim, used 
= 'helmets,' compare 11. 689, 742. 

flectunt . . . , ' and weave tlie osier framework of shields.' 
'Tlie framework of thc siiield was made of twisted osiers, 

NOTES 123 

covered with hides, and then boiind round with metal.' — 
' Conington/ 

633. umbo here = ' shield.' Originally it meant the boss 
or knob jn-ojecting from the ccntre of a shield to turn ofF 
inissiles, and even used as an offensivo weapon afc close 
quarters. It seems to have been covered with leather. 

alii : a preceding alii must be understood as subject to 
carant and flictmd. 

thoracas : Greek accusative. Tlie thorax is the same 
as the lorica \\. 640), bufc once in Liv-y opposed to it as being 
of nietal, not leather. 

634. The spondaic rhythm of this line (ocreas may be 
scanned eitlier ocrtds or ocreds by synizesis) is intended to 
express thegradualhammering-o»it of tlie metal intogreaves. 
See Introduction, iv. Tlie greave reaclied from just above 
the knee to tlie ankle, and fastened behind by means of 
straps. It was usualh' made of tin or bronze. 

lento = ' ductile.' 

ducunt: cxtend by hammering, so = 'forge.' 

argento : abhitive of material. 

635. huc witii cessif, ' hither (_i.e. to llie manufaeture of 
arms) passed.' 

636. recoquunt = ' forge anew. ' 

637. cla£sica : originally a signal given by sounding 
a trumpL-t, then the trumpet whicli gave the signal=cornMa. 

iamque : usually first. Cf. iii. 588 ' posteri iamque dies.' 

bello : dative ; ' for war.' 

tessera : originallj- a ' die ' or ' tablet ' with the watch- 
word on it, which was distributed to the men to enable 
them to diitinguisli friend and enemy. Orders were circu- 
lated in this way from century to century, until the begin- 
ning of the empire, when the word of comrnand by mouth 
was substituted. 

638. trepidus, ' in eager liaste.' 
liic . . . ille : d fj.ii/ . . . 6 5e. 

639. ad iug^a : a variation on the usual sub iuga. 
trilicem, &c., ' dons a breastplate of triple gold, and 

girds liim with liis tnisty blade.' The licia was a leash 
used in weaving, joining alternate threads, so that they 
could all be lifted together to allow the passage of the shuttle. 
Where two leashes were used the material was called hilix, 
where fhree, iriJix. — {Dictionanj of Antiquities.) 

640. Both induitur and accingitur are middle, for which 
use see Appendix. 

loricam : there were many varieties of this, f'>r whicli 


see Dictionary of Anfiquities. Rovighly speaking, it wns a cuiraas 
or shirt of niail, covoringtho Ijody down to tho waist. 

641. The rest of the book is an imitation of tlie fanious 
Homeric catalogue (liiad ii. 484) of ships, which likewise 
hogins with an invocation of tlio Muses. 

pandite: as thougli tho dotails which Vergil wanted 
wore storcd in Helicon. 

Helicoua : Greek accusative. Soe Vocabulary of Proi>or 

deae : tho Muses. 

cantusque movete = canite. 

642. bello : dativo of purpose = in hellum. 

ezciti : for scansion soe note on 1. 623 ; supply/!<er/HY. 

643. complerint — compleverint. Subjunctive, as being an 
indiroct question. 

iam tum, ' even then ' ; i. e. before Rome had risen to 
her mighty powor. 

644. Two sul>junctives as in \. 643. 

alma : from ah, ' I nourish ' = mother Italy. 
quibvis arserit armis moans not only 'witli wlvat arms 
she bhvzed,' but ' wliat fiory warriors she Ivad in arms.' 

645. et . . . et, 'lioth . . . and.' Botli vcrbs in this linc 
refer to the connexion of the Muses and mevnory. 

' Por well you know, and can record alone, 
What favne to futuro tivnes conveys but darkl}' down.' — 


647. Tyrrlienis : Vergil foUows a traditiovi which makes 
Mezontius avi Etruscan prineo, drivevi out of Caere for his 
cruolty, bivt there are vnany other <iuite differont logends. 

ab orisreforstohisoriginal lionve, viot tohispresevitrefuge. 

648. contemptor : according to Cato he ordered the Rutu- 
lians to vnakc offerivigs to Ivivn as to tho gods. 

649. iuxta: adverbial, ' by his side,' viot a preposition 
with dativo, which wouUl vnean ' equally with.' 

quo : ablativo of coniparison, especially covninon aftor 
a negative. 

650. corpore Turni is a periphrasis for Tiirno, but lays 
nioro stnss on his bodily boaut}'. Cf. ii. 18 ' dolccta viruvn 
sortiti corpora.' 

651. equum domitor : cf. 1. i8g. 

652. Agyllina . . . urbe : AgyUa aftcrwards Caero. 
neqniquam, bocauso thcir loader was to bo slain, and 

they themsclvos routcd. 

653. 'Worthy to bc happior undcr his fathor's rule,' 

NOTES 125 

a ratlier forced way of saying ' wortliy of having a botter 
father to obey.' 

esset is consecutivc subjunctive after dignus qui, a use 
common also in prose. 

654. cni = et ut ei. 

Notice the repetition of esset, not for emphasis, but 
because this part of the poem Avas not finally revised. See 
note on 11. 423-4. 

655. palma: prize for a victoiy inachariot race. Ablative 
aftor i7isigiiis, as in 1, 612. 

per gramina, ' along the grassy plain.' 

656. Hercule : ablative of origin. Cf. 1. 152. 

pulchro : beautiful because strong ; the hei-oic type of 

657. Notice emphatic j^^osition of pulcher idter puldnv. 
Aventinus : tliis tale of Aventinus, son of Hercules and 

Rhea, only occurs in Yorgi!, who seems to have invented it. 
A king of the aborigines is said to have been buried on the 
Mons Aventinus. 

clipeo : to be taken with gerit, ' bears on his shield liis 
father'3 device.' Cf. ii. 392 ' clipeique insigne decorum 
induitur.' The insigne Avas the device, coat of arms, or crest 
engraved on the shield. 

658. ' A hundrcd snakcs and a hydra girt with seipents,' 
hendiadys for ' a hydra girt with a hundred snakes.' Hercules 
had slain the Lernean liydra. 

659. Khea sacerdos. Vergil has taken this name from 
the vestal virgin Rhea, who became by Mars the mother of 
Romulns and Remus. 

660. fartivnm partu : a variation offuriiro pariu, 'in secret 

sub luminis . . . oras : a common Lucretian cxpression 
describing the border line which divides light from dark- 
ness. Vergil uses it twice, here and Georg. ii. 47. Ora means 
originally edge or limit. 

661. mixta deo mulier, 'a woman wedded to a god ' ; 
Homeric phrase. 

Laurentia: uscd vaguely, for Hercules stoijpcd on the 
site of Rome. Possibly at that time Laurentum ruled all 
the surrounding country. 

662. Geryone : onc of the labours to which Hercules was 
condemned by Eurystheus was the slaying of this three- 
headed giant and the driving away of his eattle. 

Tirynthius : a name given to Hercules, who was said 
to have been rcared at Tiryns, an Argive town. 


attigit, * had roachod ' ; i^vrfnct after postquam = English 
pluporfect. Cf. 1. 406. 

663. Tyrrheno . . . flumine : tho Tibor. Cf. 1. 242. 

664. Tho pilum wus tho roguhir woapou of the Rninaii 
infaiitry. It was a Javelin six or sovcn foot in length, woigli- 
ing somo nino pounds. Each nian carried two, wliich he 
usod gonorally as missiles, but sometimes for thrusting at 
close qnarters. 

gerunt : a subject must be supplied, ' Aventinus' men.* 
This omission is another indication of lack of revision. 

in bella, 'for use in war.' Cf. 1. 13 ' nocturna in 

dolones : stakes fitted with short iron points ; others 
oxphiin tlio word as — ' sword-sticks.' 

665. ' And iiglit witli tho tapering point and the Sabino 
javolin.' mucro, wliicli originally moaiit 'the point,' must 
licre be used of a sliort sword, while tereti is eithor ' taper- 
ing' or ' smootii and round.' Otliors prefor to take it as 
a hendiadys, ' witli tho taporing point of tho Sabino javelin.' 

Tlie veru was a Samnito woapon with an iron jioint like 
a spit, Avhonce it took its name. 

666. pedes : to be taken witli teda suhibat. Ho drove up 
to tlie paLaee, and tliere dismounted from his chariot. 

tegumen : anotlior form of tefjmen. 

torquens : flinging it around him so that tlie ends acted 
as a girdlo. 

leonis : Horcules' usual attire. Cf. 1. 669. 

667. ' Unkompt with thc grim mano, with wliite teeth, he 
wrapped it over his head.' snvta is ablativo of description. 

668. indutus is put somowhat carelossly after torqueiis. 
To make complete sense hanc pellem or caput must lie supplied 
with it. Notice the dativo hore in addition to the accusa- 
tivo. For the middlo uso see Appondix. 

sic joins thc varions parts of the preceding description 
togctlior ; ' in such garb.' 

669. umeros innexus : middlo ; see Appendix. 

670. Tiburtia: according to tradition 'Tiliur was foundi'd 
by 'iiburtus, Catillus, and Coras, tho grandsons of Amphia- 
raus, wlio was swallowed up alivo by tlio oarth boforeThobes. 

671. The cognomcn of a Koman was a family name or 
opithet addod to thc nomcn, which spociificd the gens of tlie 
porson menticned. For example, Scipio was callod Africa- 
nus, and fliis epithot was liis cognomon. Just as a genoral 
took a namo from a conquered coimtry, so a new settlomont 
took th.o namc of its founder. Cf. iii. 334-5 : 

NOTES 127 

' qui Chaonios cognomine campos 
Cliaonianiqiie omnem Troiano a Chaonc dixit.' 

gentem : in apposition loosaly to moenia. 

672. Argiva : Anipliiaraus came from Argos. 

673. primam ante aciem : cf. 1. 531. 
feruntur, ' rusli ' or 'chargc.' Middle. 

674. nubig^enae : they si^rang froni Ixion, and a cloud 
which he iniagined to be Juno. 

675. Centauri : see Vocaliulary of Proper Names. Homole 
and Othrys are mountains in Thessaly, the country in- 
habited by the Centaurs. It is suggested that it was owing 
to their living in a mountainous land that they -were called 

677. dat . . . locum : cf. ii. 633 ' dant tela locum, flam- 
maeque recedunt.' 

magfno . . . fragore : ablative of attcndant circum- 

'They rush along ; the rattling woods give way ; 
The branches bend before their sweej^y sway.' 

— (Dryden.) 

678. Praenestiuae . . . urbis =■ Praenesfe : cf. I. 652. 

679. TJie order of this sentence is as follows : ' Caeculus 
quem omnis aetas credidit Volcano genitum esse pecora inter 
agrestia regem inventumque esse focis.' 

Vulcano: ablative of origin. Cf. 1. 47. 
xegexn. : probably proleptic ; ' to be king.' 

680. omnis . . . aetas, ' all ages ' ; generally = ' people of 
every age.' 

credidit. According to tradition, his mother was made 
to conceive him from a spark of fire. Shc left her son near 
the hearth in the temple of Juppiter, where some maidens 
found him. He was brought up in the woods, and called 
Caeculus, from liis little eyes. Subsequently he proclaimed 
himself son of Vulcan and proved his assertion by sur- 
roiinding the bystanders with flame. 

682. altum. Praeneste is among the mountains, and 
many villas were built there by wealthy Romans who 
wished to avoid the summer heat. 

Gabinae. Gabii did not yet exist, but was later famous 
for its temple of Juno. Macaulay, in The Battle of Lake 
Begillus, speaks of — 

'Rex of Gabii, 
The priest of Juno's shrine.' 


683. Auieuem. Tlio river is put for thc country. 

684. Hernica saxa : i. c. thc rocky country of the Hernici. 
Herna is said to bo tho Sabine word for ' rock.' 

Auagruia was thc cliief town of thc Hernici ; its richcs 
wore duo to its corniields. 

685. quos : supply pancis. Ainasoius is hcre pei'sonified, 
as often with rivors. Cf. 1. 30 'fiuvio Tilicrinus anioeno.' 

arma : cithor with sonan/ or supply sitnt. 

686. glaudes : lcaden balls shapcd like olives or acorns. 

688. biua, ' two each.' 
fulvus : see 1. 76, note. 

galeros : caps mado froni animals' skin with the fur 
loft on, worn iiistead of helmots. Tlic nnmo was also givcn 
to tho caps of the priests, and, in latcr days, to wigs. 

689. teg^meu : apposition of singular and plural : cf. 1. 63. 
capiti : for case cf. 1. 446, note. 

vestigia, ' they plant bare the soles of thclr Icft foot : a 
raw hide boot guards tho right.' Vergil has rcvcrsed the 
usual method here ; generally it was the riglit fout that was 
unshod, while the left was protected. However, a fi-agmcnt 
of Euripidws suggests that to havo the left foot bare was an 
Aotoliau custom. Honry V, when bosioging Rouen in 1418, 
had with him a body of Irish of whom, says Monstrelct, 
' the grcater part had a stocking and slioe on onc foot only, 
while the other was quite naked.' 

690. iustituere, ' are accustomed to plant ' ; a use of the 
porfoct corrosponding to the gnomic aorist in CTroek. Thc 
pera was a boot of raw hide or lcather, laced in front and 
reaching up tlio cialf. 

691. ectuum domitor : cf. II. 189,651. Mossapus, who is 
here an Etruscan princc, ean hardly bo tlio same as tho 
eponymous hcro of tiio Mcssapians iu tlio south-cast of Italy. 

692. If igni is used of fire in gonoral, this lino is anothor 
instancc of zougma ; for stcrnerc will oniy suit ferro. If Ujni 
= missile fire, tlioro is no difliculty. 

693. bello : ablativo aftor desueta. 

694. retractat, ' grasps again,' i. e. aftor the long peaco. 

695. Aectuosque Faliscos : tho inhabitants of Falcrii, a 
colony of tho Aoqui. Others take aequos as = ' just.' 

696. habeut. This word, by a somowhat harsli zeugma, 
must bo takon both with acies and arces. 'Thoy load (or fill) 
thc linos of Fosconnin, and liold the heights of Soracte.' 
Of Flavinia arva nothing certain is known. 

697. Capeuos containcd the sacred grovoof Fcronia at tho 
foot of Mount Soracte. 

NOTES 129 

698. aequati numero : probably not * in equal ranks,' 
which would contradict 11. 703-5, where their disorder is 
mentioned, but 'in measured tinie,' a variation of aeqnalo 

699. quoudam, 'at times ' ; a frequent use, especially in 
similes : cf. 1. 378. 

700. e pastu, ' from feeding,' 
longa . . . coUa : Homeric phrase. 

70 r. dant = edunt, ' utter.' 

modos. As a rule the ancient poets only spoke of thc 
swan as singing just before death. 

amuis : i. e. the Cayster in Lydia, as is proved by thc 
use ot Asia paluSjWheYe Asia has itsold meaning — the valley 
of the Cayster. 

702. pulsa, 'struck' by the sound, not, as some think, by 
oars or the swans' wing.s. 

703. ex agmine tanto goes with misceri, ' are massed out 
of such a throng,' i. e. no one would think tliat tliis great 
throng is really lines of warriors. 

704. misceri has its usual meaning of confusion, but is 
almost equivalent to congregari, 

aeriam, ' flying high.' 

gurgfite ab alto, 'from deep water.' 

705. xirgTieri: middle ; 'hastening.' 

volucrnm raucarum : not the swans, but cranes, as in 
the passage in Homer whence Vergil took liis simile. 

707. Clausus, acciirdlng to Livy ii. 16, was driven out of 
Regillum because he was in favour of peace with Rome, and 
was kindly i-eceived by tlie Romans, while his followers 
formcd the Claudian tribe. 

instar, ' liimself worth a great army,* Instar is an in- 
declmable substantive = ' likeness,' So Livy xxviii. 17 
' parvum instar eorum qui . , ,' It is generally used with 
tlie genitive ^ ' like.' Vergil also has it once (vi. 865 
' quantum instar in ipso ') = ' a form, a figure.' 

708. tribus. Originally there were three tribes, Ser- 
vius divided tlie people into four, and in b.c. 241 the 
number was increased to thirty-five. Each tribe con- 
tained teu curiae, and each curia a number of gentes or 
clans, tlie members of which were descended from one 

709. in partem : cf. iii. 222-3 'vocamus in partem prae- 

data : supply es/. 

Sabinis. Livv i. 13 tells how the Sabines and Romans 

AEN. \ll K 


were reconcilcd by tho women whom the Romans hacl 
carried off, and the two nations were united under Romulus 
and Titus Tatius. But this occurred two centuries before 
tlie time of Clausus. 

710. Amiternum is famous as being the native town of 
tlie historian Sallust. 

Quirites: inhabitants of Cures. Why tlie Romans 
called theuiselves Qnirites is not certain. Besidvs thc usual 
cxplanation that they took the name from thoir union witli 
Ihe Sabines, there is the more probable one tliat the word 
= spearmen. 

711. Eretum is said to have been on the left bank of the 

Mutuscae : full namc Trehula Mutusca. 

712. Nonientum. Vergil has apparently forgotten that in 
vi. 773, it is mcntioned as to be built by Aeneas' descendants. 

Bosea rura Velini : the district called Campi Rosei in 
the territory of Reate, near lakc Velinus, for which see 
1. 517, note. 

713. Of Tetrica (gloomy) and Severus (grim) nothing is 
known except that they were hills in tho Apennines. 

714. Casperia {Casperula) lies near the springs of the 
Himell:i, a small tributary of the Tiber. Foruli is near 

715. frigida : so callcd from lyiug among thc northcrn 
Iiills of tlic Sabine countiy. 

716. Hortinae. Horta was a small town on the north 
side of the Tilicr. 

classes : here used in its old mcaning, 'armics.' Cf. 
iii. 602 ' scio mc Danais e chxssilnis unum.' 

popiili Latini must refor to thc little Latin communities 
to be found in Sabine territory. 

717. ' And those whom Allia — ill-omencd name— parts as 
it flows betwcen.' Aftcr the dcfeat of the Romans ('Tuly 18, 
360 B. c.) by Brcnnus the Gaul on the banks of the Allia, 
that date was called clies Alliensis, and became a clies ne/astus, 
i. e. a day on which the praetor might not pronounce {fari) 
the thrcc words of judgement — rfo, dieo, nddico. 

718. Vci'gil has compresscd liis comparis<in, which in full 
wiiiild liavo run ' tam multi sunt quam . , .' 

volvuntur : middle ; ' roll.' 

719. Orion scts in Novembcr, and his sctting was con- 
sidt-rcd a time of storms ; henco A^^ergil calls liiin nimhosus 
and aquosus. In i. 535, iv. 52, the word is scanned OrtOyi. 

NOTES 131 

720. Again compresi^ed. Supply quam muUae sunt aristae 
cum sole novo . . . Tlie compression is made easier by the use 
of densae. 

sole novo : apparently when the sun's rays are again 
becoming powerful at the begiuning of summer. It might 
also mean ' at tiie rising of tlic sun.' 

721. The valley of Hcrmus was famous for its fertility, 
but Lycia was generally considered rugged and stony. 
According to Sidgwick, however, ' in spite of the high 
Taurus range it is rieh and fertile.' 

722. ' Their shields chish, and the earth trembles boneath 
the tramp of feet.' Supply est with conferrita, wliich is better 
tiian to repeat soxat witla tellus and make conterrita a parti- 

723. hinc: of order, ' next.' 

Ag^amenmonius : not son of Agamemnon, for in x. 417, 
his father is called fata canens, i. e. proplietic, but either 
' companion of Agamemnon,' or Agamemnon i.s used for 
Greek, as Aeneadae for Trojan. 

nominis : objective genitive. 

724. curru = cnrrui, dative. 

Turno : dative of advantage ; ' to Turnus' aid.' 

725. rapit, • hurries along.' 
vertunt : cf. 1. 539. 

felicia Baccho, 'fertile in wino." Felix here takes the 
same construction as diies, 1. 537 ; more often it is joined 
with a genitive. 

726. Blassica: supply arva. From this region came the 
Massic and Falernian wines. 

727. Aurunci: cf. 1. 206. notc. 

Sidicinaque iuxta aequora. Take iuxta as an ad- 
verb. ' And those whom the plains of Sidicinum harcl bj' 
sent.' Others take iuxta as a preposition, and translate, 
' Those whom the dwellers near tiie plains of Sidicinum 

728. aei^uora : any level surfacc ; here = ' plain,' more 
often = ' sea.' 

Cales bordered on Teanum, tlio chief town of tlie 

729. accola. Tliisword has no grammatical construetion. 
It should be accusative after rajJit, but Vergil seems to have 
forgotten liow he began tlie sentence — anothei- sign of 
imperfect revision. 

asper, ' hardy,' from their life in the liills. 

730. Oscorum : see Index of Proper Names. 

K 2 


aclydes: spiked clubs or javelins which could be 
puUed back by a tliong aftcr being launched. 

731. flag^ello : liere = thong ; = loro, or amentn. 

732. cetra : a narrow buckler covered witli leatlier, used 
by Afi-icans and Spaniards. Said to be the sanie as the 
Highland targct. 

falcati . . . enses = scimitars. Tegunt must be supplied 
as vcrb by zeugma. The first lialf of tlie line refers to 
defensive, tlio sccond to offensive weapons. 

734. Oebale : only mcntioned here. 

Sebethide : a nymph, dauglitor of tlio little river 
Sebethus, wliicli flows near Naplcs. Ablative of origin. 

735. Teleboum: contracted genitive. They had originally 
lived in the Taphian islands, near Leuras, and had emigrated 
to Capreae, whence Oobakis, finding his dominions too small, 
liad crossed to thc mainland. 

Capreas is in api:)Msition to Ttkboum regnn. 

736. iam senior to l)e taken with generasse, 1. 734. 
et : liko his father. 

arvis : aljlative of means, after contentus. 

737. dicione premebat, ' was swaying.' 

738. aequora = ' plains,' as in 1. 728. 

Sarnus : a little river near Pompeii, the course of which 
is said to liave bcen changed l)y the famous eruption of 
Vesuvius in which Pompeii was clcstroycd, a. d. 79. 

739. Celemna was conseerated to Juno. 

740. despectant. Abella being situated high .nmong the 
liills can be propcrly said to ' look down.' It was famous 
for its nuts. 

741. soliti. Strict grammar requires solitos to agree with 
thc preceding quos. Vergil lias changed his case carelessly 
as in 1. 729, whcre see note. 

cateia : an unknown weapon, variously explained as 
club, spcar, or tlie same as the achjs, 1. 730. 

742. tegmina: plural in apposition to singular, cortex, as 
in II. 63, 246, &c. 

quis = rjKtfms. 

raptus de subere cortex, ' bark torn from tlie cork-tree.' 
According to Scrvius, tresh bark could be shaped into any 
form rcciuircd. 

743. peltae were small light shields, somewhat moon- 
shai)ed, made of wood or wicker-work, with a covering of 

744. Of Nersae notliing is known. 

745. Ufens : a hero taking his namo from a rivcr : cf. 

NOTES 133 

Ahno. 1. 532, and Galaesus, 1. 535. In 1. 802 the river itself 
is mentioneil. 

insig^nem : with ablative ; cf. 11. 612, 655. His arms 
were not filicia in this instance, for we hear of liis dcath in 
batde in xii. 460. 

746. horrida, ' shaggy,' especially with reference to their 

747. venatn may be ablative, bnt it is better to take it as 
dative, becaiise we have already had that case after adsiutus, 
in 1. 490. The form is contracted from venatui, for which 
cf. 1. 724. oirrii, 

Aeqnicula : take with gens. They were a race of moun- 
tainecrs, dwelling on both banks of the Anio and round 
Mount Algidus. 

glebis : al)lative of description. 

748. exercent, ' till.' 

semper . . . rapto : cf. ix. 613. 

749. convectare : used iv. 405, otlierwise only occurs once 
in classical Latin. 

vivere = ' to live on' takes the same construction as 
vesci: the ablative is one of means. 

751. ' Decked with leaves of the fruitful olive.' 

fronde . . . et felici . . . oliva form a hendiadys. An 
olive crown was tlie badgo of a priest. 

752. missn : ablative of cause. 

753. The datives depend upon spargere. 

graviter spirantibus contains the ideas (i) that the 
verj- breath of the reptile was poisonous, ''2) that they gave 
off a foul smell. The latter is true, the former, like many 
of Vergirs details aboiit snakes, false. 

754. cantu = ' incantations.' 
mauu = 'thetouch.' 

756. ictum : medicari always takes the dative of the person 
healed, but apparently the accusative of the disease, although 
the only other case quoted is in Plautus. 

757. in vulnera, ' to heal,' or ' prevent wounds.' As 
a rule ni vulnera = 'to inflict wounds,' therefore some read 
m vulnere here, but there seems no good reason why in with 
the accusative should be limited to one meaning. 

759. Angritiae (others read AnguHiae, supposing the word 
to be connected with unguis) was a godde^s of enchantments, 
sister of the great enchantress, Medea ; she had a sacred 
grove south of Lake Fucinus in Marsian territory. 

vitrea = ' crystal.' 

Pucinus : supply lacus. 


For the repetition of te, ;iiul the idea, compare Milton, 
Lycidas : — 

* Thee, shephord, thee the woods, and desert caves 
With wild thymc and tho gadding vine o'ergrown, 
And all their eehocs nioiirn.' 

761. For tho story of Hippolytus see Vocabulary of Propcr 

bello may be either ablative with pukheirima ' glorious 
in war,' or dativo = in hellum, witli ibal, ' wont to the war.' 

762. Virbius was originally an indigcnous Italian hero 
cr demi-god wlio was worshipped in Diana's grove near 
Aricia. He was probably a gud of hunting, but as horses, 
from somc iinknuwn scruf)le, were kopt ont of tlie grove, 
he was c\-entually identified with the Grock Hippolytus. 

Aricia: it is imiiossible to docide wliother this refers 
to the town or to the nj^mjih of tho same name. 

763. Eg-eria pos-esscd a grove ncar Aricia as well as 
the ono ncar tlic Porta Capena of Komc, whcre she used 
to meet Numa. 

764. litora : the banks of Lake Ncmi. Cf. 1. 516. 
placabilis, ' gentle ' : apparently tlie worship of Diana 

at Aricia is opposed to the more sanguinary worship at 
Tauri, where strangers wcro sacrificcd to tlie goddess. 
Otliers dcny this allusion, bccause latcr writci"s call the 
shrino iininilis, and say that placabilis is nscd quite ■\'ague]y 
= 'kindly.' Macaulay's lines are well known : — 
'From tho still glassy lake that slecps 
Beneath Aricia's trecs — 
Thoso trccs in whose dim shadow 

The ghastly priest doth rcign, 
The priest who slcw the slayer, 
And shall himself be slain.' 
' The priest, ealled rex neniorensis, was always a runaway 
slave, who obtained his officc ))y killing liis prcdecessor. 
The priest was obligcd to figlit with any slavc who succecdcd 
in breaking off a branch of a certain trce in the sacred 
grove.' — '^^Ciassical Dictionary.') 

765. ferunt, ' they say.' 
novercae : i. c. Phaidra. 

766. occiderit and explerit (= expleverit) arc subjunctivc 
as bcing in a dcpcndcnt clausc in Oratio Oldiqua. 

patriasque explerit saugfuine poenas - ' satisfied the 
pcnalty dcmandcd by liis siic' Thoscus liad curscd his son, 
and prayed Poseidon to destroy him. Tlic lattor sent a sca- 

NOTES 135 

inonstcr wliich ten"ified Hippolytiis' hDrso.s, and lie was 
killcd l>y being dragged along the ground. 

767. turbatis, ' terrified.' Ablative of agent without 

768. sub atiras, 'up to the iipper air.' 

769. Paeoniis : the Greek is Uaiwvioi, therefore this word 
must scan as a trisyUable by synizesis of the two i's. Paeon 
was god of niedicine (subsequently identified with Apollo), 
so that Paeoniis herhis = medicinal herbs. 

772. repertorem : Aeseulapius, son of Apollo and the 
nynipli Coronis. Cf. Phoehigenam, 1. 773. 

medicinae talis et artis : hendiadys, * the inventor of 
such healing art.' 

774. Trivia: cf. 1. 516. 

775. nympliae aud nemori are instances of the Vergilian 
use of the dative = //n- accusative. The sentenoe is best 
taken as a hendiadys, ' banishes liim to the grove of tlie 
nymph Eijeria.' 

776. ubi = ut ibi, ' that there,' foUowed by subjunctive of 

778. etiam, 'still.' 

templo : ablative of separation with arcenfur, 

780. monstris : abhitive of cause after pavidi, which takes 
the coiistruction of a participle. 

efifudere : the verb must be taken by zeugma in a 
different" sense Avith its two objects. ' Overturned the 
chariot, and flung out the youth.' 

781. ardentes, 'fiery.' 

haud setius, ' none the less ' ; taught by his fathers 
fate lie might have been expected to liave avoided horses. 
aeijuore campi, ' the level plain.' 

782. exercebat, ' drove.' Cf. I. 163. 

783. praestanti corpore : ablative of description. 

784. vertitur : a middle iise = se vertif, a variation of the 
prose vtrMfur. 

toto vertice supra est, ' ovei-tops them by a full liead.' 
Ablative of amount of ditference.' 

785. cui is to be taken witli alta g^alea, ' whose lofty helm' ; 
dative for genitive. 

triplici . . . iuba: i. e. a triple crest of horse hair. The 
Greek crest was of horsehair, tlie Roman of feathers. 

Cbimaeram: a lion in front, a goat in the middle, 
a snake behind, breathing foi-th fire. 

786. sustinet, ' holds aloft ' on the helmet top. 
Aetnaeos : as great as Aetna would belch forth. 



787. tam magfis : this use oi tam . . . quam witli tlie com- 
parativo instead of tlic oi-diiiaiy co . . . qm is an ardiaism, 

illa fremeus : an instanee of anacolutlion ; gram- 
niatically botli ■\vords sliould be in tlie accusativc, agreeing 
with Chimaeram. In descriptive passages participles ancl 
adjectives not unfrequently take the place of finite verbs in 

tristibus, 'grim.' 

788. ' The more the fight grows fierce mid streams of 

crudesctiut is a very vigorous word, literally = becomes 

789. levem : noticc the v ; su 1. 815. 

sutolatis cornibiis, ' with horns erect ' : suUatis = eredis. 
lo had been changed into a cow to save her from the 
jealous cruelty of Juno. 

790. auro iusig^uibat, ' marked thc shield witli gold,' i. e. 
the dovicc of lo was wrought in gold in relief on the iron 

auro : abhitivc of matcrial. 

791. arg-umentum: literally a subject or theme of any 
story or work of art. Here translate 'device.' 

virgiuis : objective genitive. 

Arg^us: appointed by Juno to watch lo withhishundrcd 
eycs, but Juppiter ]iersuadcd Ilerines to lull liiin to sleep and 
then kill him. His eyes Avere placed by Juno on her pea- 
cock's tail. 

792. Zuachus is represented as a river god whose common 
attribute is an urn, from wliich ho pours water. 

793. uimbus peditum, 'a cloud of foot.' Homeric phrase, 

79^. denseutur: a word drawn fromEiinius. Thecommon 
densanlur is read borc by somc. 

Argiva: as coming from Ardea, wliich we aro told in 
1. 410 was founded from Argos. 

795. Aiiruucae : we have alrcady liad some of tlie Aurumi 
mcntioiicd in 1. 727 ; thcy wero thosc from tlie furtlier side 
of tlie Liris, thcse from the nearer, i. e. northern. 

Sicaui : idoiitificd by Vcrgil witli thc Siculi, from whom 
Thucytlides tells us they werc distinct. The Sicani, he says, 
considered themsclves the aborigines of Sicily, Init were 
really Ibcrians, The Siculi, whom Vcrgil is spoaking of 
here, wero drivcn to Sicily from Italy by the Opicans, but 
somc of them remained behind and were iu Italy in 
Thucydides' day. 

NOTES 137 

796. Sacrauae : nothing certain is known of tlus people. 
picti scuta : foi- the aecusative Avith tlie passive verb 

see Appendix. incti is opposed to caelati, 'painted,' nofc 
' engraved.' 

Iiabici = Lahicani, inhabitants of Labicum, a town in the 
Latin League. 

797. Tiberiue : cf. 11. 29-30. 
Numici: cf. 11. 150, 242. 

798. exerceut : cf. 1. 748. 

799. Circaeum. iugum : cf. 1. 10. 
quis = quibus ; dat. aftev j^raesiclet. 

luppiter Auxurus : Anxur, figured as a young beardlcss 
man, was the chief male deity of Anxur, a Volscian town, 
later called Terracina. He was identified with Juppiter, 

800. Peronia : a female deity corresponding to Anxur, 
and identined with Juno Virgo. She was goddess of spring, 
streams, and sacred groves. (Benoist.) In viii. 563-7 wc 
hear of her son Erulus slain by Evander in spite of the 
three lives that his mother gave him. 

801. Saturae: not identified, but part of the Pontine 

802. Ufens : here the river which heli^s to make the 
Pontine mar.shes. In 1. 745 a hero. 

quaerit implies the difficulty with which it makes 
a way through the marshes, 

803. super, ' besides,' 

Camilla: an invention ofVergirs. 

804. a^men, , , catervas: hendiadys, 'a troop of squadrons 
of horse aglow with bronze,' It is impossible to translate 
Jlorenies literally ; Servius says it is a meaning taken from 
Ennius and Lucretius, ■who called anything /lorens which 
was niticlum. The line is repeated xi. 433. 

805. illa is emphatic = (7/« quidcm. 

806. adsueta manus : for voice and case see Appendix, 
virg^o, ' although a maid.' 

807. Take dura with lyroelia, and repeat achueta with 
pati, ' accustomed to endure hard war,' This is better than 
to take the iiifinitive with paf?, a Greek construction. In 
xi. 585 Vergil implies that this was Camilla's first Avar. 

808-9. intactae : i. e. untouched by the sickle, 'uncut.' 

volaret . . . laesisset, ' would fly, nor would be found 

to have hurt,' is the force of the tenses. Two imperfecta 

would have been more natural. The subjunctive is hypo- 

thetical, i. e, giving the apodosis of a conditional sentence, 

gramina, ' blades.' This passage is an imitation of 



Homer, lUud xx. 226-9, but is not quite so ))olcl as the 
Greek, in which the liorses of Ericlithouius are inado rcally 
to ruii ovcr tho cars witJiout broaking theni, and over tho 
top of tho sca wavcs. 

8io. suspeusa, ' hung upon,' i. c. ' upon.' 

811. ferret iter : a i-are phrase for fcrrc pedcm. The 
suhjunctivcs in this linc arc also hypothetical. 

812. tectis : al)hitivo of place whencc witli effusa. 

813. prospectat, * looks after her.' 

814. attonitis inhiaus animis, ' oiien-mouthccl witli 
woncler in their niinds.' 

ut = ' how.' 

reg°ius, ctc. , ' tho glory of royal purple clothcs her smooth 
shoulders.' Litorally : ' a royal ornamcnt clothcs with 

815. velet ancl tho two following vcrbs are subjunctivc as 
bcing in indiroct sijecch, lepresenting tho idea in the minds 
of the spectators. Tliey might conccivably bo exi^lained 
as indirect cjuestions aftcr attonltis. 

fibula, ' clas]),' usually a nian's ornament. 

816. Iiyciani : the Lycians werc famous for skill in archery. 
ipsa, ' tho maid herself,' distinguishcd from hcr 

shoulders and hair (Conington). 

817. 'And shei>hercrs myrtle-staff with tipof spcar.' The 
myrtle was frequcntly used for spcars. Cf. iii. 23 ' dcnsis 
hastilibus horrida myrtus.' 

' She sliakes hcr myrtlc javelin ; and lnhincl 
Hcr Lycian cxuiver dances in tlie wincL' 

— (Drydeu.) 



Four \ises may be distinguishecl. 

1. Action done by the subject to liiniself. Rellexive. 
1. 1^6 ferunfur, 'rush along.' 

I. 163 exercentur, 'exercise tliemselves.' 

1. 303 conduntur, 'hide theniselves.' 

1. 350 rclvitur, 'glidcs along.' 

1. 429 moveri, ' move.' 

I. 459 proruptus, 'bursting forth.' 

I. 569 monstrantur, 'show themselves.' 

1. 640 accingitur ense, 'girds himself Avith a sword.' 

I. 705 urgueri, ' on.' 

I. 718 xolvuntur, 'roll.' 

1. 784 xertitur, ' turus himself al)out.' 

2. Middle iise with a direct object expressing a part of 

the body. 
h 503 palriiis percussa lacertos, 'smiting her breast with 

iier iiands.' 
1. 669 humeros innexus amictu, 'having swathed his 

shoulders with the garb of Hercules.' 
1. 806 adsueta manus, ' having accustomed her hands.' 

3. Middle usewith a direct object expressing something 

1. 640 loricam incluitur, 'he dons a breastplate.' 


1. 668 ind^diis capiti \te(jumeii), 'having douned on his 
licad a covering.' 
4. True passive with uccusative. 

1. 74 ornalum. . . cremari, 'to havo lier ornaniont burnod.' 
1. 75 accensa conias, accensa coronam, 'with locks and 

crown ablaze.' 
1. 796 picti sctita Lahici, ' thoso of Labituun with painted 
It will be noticod tliat luiddlcs and passsivcs ofteu cannot 
1)0 translated as sush. 



ab = to, 1. io6. 

Ablative Absoluts : 11. 5, 6, 112, 261, 385, 467, 510, 520, 522, 
569. 587-8, 629. 650. 

amount of difference, 1. 784. 

attendnnt circumstances. 11. 284,361, 462, 499, 523, 677. 

cause, 11. 249, 376, 752, 780. 

comparison, 1. 649. 

description and quality, 11. 187, 225, 474, 483, 612, 655. 

667, 745» 747, 783- 
instrument, 11. 98, 163, 199, 205, 271. 336, 373, 396, &c. 
manner, 11. 250, 264, 350, 354, 391, 457, 478, 487, 615, 

material, 11. 634, 790, 814. 
means, 11. 736, 749, 754. 
origin, 11. 47, 152, 331, 656, 679, 734. 
place ■\vhence, 11. 218, 222, 292, 299, 429, 459, 469, 530, &c. 
place wliere, 11. 12, 70, 77,91, 134, 140, 171, 192, 210, 269, 

294, &c. 
respect, 1. 215. 

separation, 11. 274, 313, 579, 610, 778. 
space over whieh, 11. 196, 781. 
time, 11. 103, 492. 
tcith desuetus, 1. 693. 
„ diies, 1. 537. 
„ felix, 1. 725. 
Abstract for concrete : 1. 96. 
Accusative : 

after intrans. verb, 11. 580. 
,, invehere, 1. 436. 
,, medicari, 1. 756. 

,, passive verb, 11. 74-5, &e. See Appendix I. 
double, 1. 606. 


Accusative (contimicd) : 

oxtcnt of action of vcrb, 1. 451. 

Greok, 11. 91, 147, 306, 312, 324, 363, 633. 

in exclaniations, 1. 293. 

in im, 11. 84, 242. 

of motion, 11. 216, 492. 

of re-p'jct, 1. 60. 
Accusative and infinitive : II. 145, 150, 255, 270-2, 389, 429, 

436, 468-9, 557, 578, 704, 768, 77T. 
Adjective used a.Iverbially : 11. 173, 354. 399, 510, 593. 
Allitsraticn : 11. 52, 79, 89, 184-6, 243, 471, 623-5, 632. 
Anachronism : 11. 242, 601, 617, 709, 712. 
Anacoluthon : 11. 61 1, 787. 
Anastrophe : 11. 30, 441-2. 
Apposition of singular and plural : 11. 63. 246, 248. 670-1, 

689, 742. 
AuxiUary omitted : 11. 48, 73, .150, 176, 203, 219, 300, 301, 
329, 372, 374t 400; 406, 421. 436, 443, 486, 548. 680, 
709, 722. 
Brachylogy : 1. T04. 
Collective noun with singular verb : 11. 106, 340, 522. 624-5, 

Collective noun with plural verb : 11. 163, 626. 
Cornparative : 11. 46, 205, 357, 557. 736. 
ConubiTim=^sc:insion of : 11. 96, 253, 333. 
Construction ad sensTTm : 1. 603. 
Contracted verb : 11. 201. 207, 410. 643, 766. 
Cum inverted : 1. 27. 

,, temporal : 11. 39, 105. 166. 
Dative : 

advantage aiul discTdvantage, 11. 80, 155, 229. 276, 280, 
282, ''&C. 

agent, II. 412, 444. 507, 598. 

contracted, 11. 724, 747. 

ethic, 1. 438. 

for genitive, 11. 446, 689, 785. 

predieative, 11. 326, 551. 

%oiih eriperc, 1. 388. 
„ inclecoris, 1. 231. 
,, similis, 1. 502. 

= in + acc., 11. 346, 456, 482, 536, 642, 761, 775. 
Deponent tTsed passively : 1. 435. 
DistribTTtive nTTmeral : 11. 538,688. 
Double iiTterrogative : 1. 197. 
Ennius copied : 11. 282, 294. 622. 


Esaggeration : 11. 217. 236. 
Four-syllable ending : 11. 344, 358, 398, 555. 
Future participle of purpose : 1. 129. 
Gdnitive : 

after medio, 11. 59. 563, 
„ vxiseref, 11. 360-1. 

in -ai, 1. 464. 

in -um, 11. 58. 189, 239. 305, 306, 344, 535, 620, 651, 735. 

objective, 11. 232. 263. 365, 401, 439, 577, 635, 723, 791. 

of definition, 11. 317, 562. 

of remotei- act, 1. 199. 

of respect, 11. 304, 440. 

partitive, 11. 273. 532. 552. 
Hendiadys : 11. 15, 142, 203, 277. 419, 473. 567. 577, 658, 751, 

772. 775- 
Hiatus : 11. 178, 226. 631. 

Homeric phrase : 11. 200. 248, 262, 444, 604, 661, 700, 793. 
Hypermetric line : 11. i6c, 470. 
i=j : 11- 175; 237. 
Imperative, concessive : 1. 313. 
Imperfect in ibam, 11. 485, 790. 

continuous effect, I. 571. 

recognition of existing fact, 1. 128. 
in : 11. 167. 434. 

Inaccuracy : 11. 122, 169, 171. 211. 423. 
Infinitive : 

historic, 11. 15, 18, 78. 

ia -arier, 1. 70. 

present after memini, 1. 206. 

icith agere, 11. 239, 393 
,, imperare, II 35, 168. 
,, potestas, 1. 591. 
., subigere, 1. 214. 
intus as adverb : II. 192, 464. 
Irony : II. 297, 425, 546, 556. 
Lengthening of short syllablo : 11. 174. 398. 

of que, I. 186. 
Litotes : II. 4. 261. 
manu of agent : II. 127, 143. 
neu, neve : II. 22. 97, 202, 265, 333. 
non = nonne : 1. 363. 
Parataxis : 1. 288. 
Perfect : 

instantaneous, I. 394. 

completed act, II. 87, 507. 


Perfect (contimied) : 

result of act, 1. 4 13. 

^Gnomic Aorist, 1. 690. 

= pluperfoct, 11. 323, 406, 471, 662. 
Pleonasm : 11. 103, 192. 
Pluperfect : II. 532, 560. 

Plural ^ Siiigular : II. 98, 217, 270, 297, 310, 359. 
Present : 

witli dum, 1. 540. 

= futuic, II. 359, 433. 
Prolepsis : II. 345, 498, 509, 626. 
properare : 11. 57, 264. 

Ropetition : II. 423-4, 429-30, 487-90, 586-7, 653-4. 
Simile : II. 378. 462. 528, 586, 674, 699, 718. 
Spondaic ending : II. 631, 634. 
Subjunctivo : 

after diijntts, 11. 653-4. 

conditioiuil, 1. 371. 

final, II. 99, 145, 258, 272, 332. 334, 348, 388, 481, 55T, 


hypothctical, 11. 558, 808-9, 81 r. 

indircct quostion, 11. 38, 131, 223-4, 643-4. 

jussive, 11. 265, 434, 546. 

oi)tative, II. 259, 555. 

Oratio Obliqua, 11. 207, 427, 766, 815-6. 
Superlativc : II. 55. 

attractcd into relative clause, 1. 217. 
Supinc in u : 11. 64, 78. 
f.uus used not of the subject : 1. 321. 
Synizesis : II. 33, 190, 249, 262, 303, 609, 769 
Tmesis : 1. 559. 

Transferred epithet : 11. 141, 329, 354, 533. 
Ultro : 1. 236. 
Usque : 1. 289. 

Ut + subj. — acc. and infin. : 11. 206-7. 
Vcrb cmitted : 11. 117, 365. 470, 535. 
Vergilian rcflnement : 11. 40, 44, 61, 76, 307, 322, 333, 339, 

341, 474. 483, 507, 526, 542, 608. 
Vocative for nominative : 1. 425. 
Zeugma : II. 271, 431. 444, 478, 692, 696, 732, 780. 


{Modern name in bracketg.) 

Abella, -ae, /. A town in 
Campania. [Avella vec- 

Acheron, -ontis, m. A river 
in the lower world ; 1. 312 
= Hell. 

Acrisioneus, -a, -iini, adj. 
Pertaining to Acrisius. 

Acrisius, -ii, ?h. King of Ar- 
gos, father of Danae, and 
grandfather of Perseus, by 
whom he was accidentally 

Aeneacies, -ae, m. Patro- 
nyniic, son or descendant 
of Aeneas. 

Aeneas, -ae, m. Aeneas, son 
of Anchises and Venus, a 
prominent warrior in de- 
fence of Troy, and the hero 
of the Af.neid. Mythical 
ancestor of the Romans. 

Aeneius, -a, -um, udj. Of, or 
belonging to Aeneas. 

Aequi - Falisci, -Oruni, m. 
;■?. A people in Etruria. 

Aeciuiculus, -a, -um, adj. 

Aetnaeus, -a, -um, adj. Of, 
or belonging to Aetna, a 
volcano in the N. E. of 

Agamemnonius, -a, -um, adj. 
Of, or bek>nging to Aga- 
memnon, king of Mycenae, 
and commander-in-chief 
of the Greeks at the siege 
of Troy. 

Agyllinu8,-a, -um, adj. Of, or 
belonging to Agylla, after- 
wards Caere, in Etruria. 

Albanus, -a, -um, adj. Of, or 
belonging to Alba, the 
most ancient town in La- 
tium, mother city of 

Albunea, -ae, /. A fountain 
and grove near Tibur. 

Allecto, -us, /. One of the 
three Furies. 

Allia, -ae,/. A Sabine river ; 
scene of the defeat of tlie 
Ronians by the Gauls, 
July 18, 390 E. c. 

Almo, -nis, m. .Son of Tyr- 



Araasenus, -i,jn. [Tlic Aina- 
sono.] A rivcr in Lativim, 
flowing from tlie Pontine 

Amata, -ae, /. Wifoofking 

Amiternus, -a, -uni, mlj. l>e- 
longing to Aniitcrnuni 
[San Ycttorino], a town 
in tho Sabino country. 

Ampsanctus, -i, m. A small 
Lnke in Samnium, ■\vlicneo 
roso mephitic vapours. 
Considercd an ontrance to 
tho lower -world. 

Anaguia, -ae, /. Tlio chief 
town of tho Hernici. 

Anchises, -ac, m. Anchiscs, 
son of Capys and Themis, 
king of Dardanus ; fathcr 
of Aeneas. 

Angitia, -ao, / A goddess 
of tho Marsians around 
Like Fucinu-:. 

Auio, -enis, m. A tributary 
of the Tiber, rising in the 
Aponninos. [Tcvoi-ono.] 

Antemnae, ■i\r\\m,f.])lnr. A 
Sabine town at the junc- 
tion of thc Tiber and the 

Anxurus, -a, -um, adj. Wor- 
shippcd at Anxur, a town 
noar tho coast of Latium. 

ApoUo, -inis, m. Apollo, 
son of .Jupitor and Latoiia, 
twin - brothcr of Diana. 
God of licaling, jjrophccy, 
music ; identifiod with thc 
sun. Ho had a famous 
oracle al Delphi. First 
known to have becn wor- 
shiiiped at Rome, 430 b.c. 

Arabus, -a, -um, a<lj. Ara- 
bian. 1. 605, as noitn. 

Archippiis, -i, m. King of 

Ardea, -ae, /. Chicftownof 
the Rutuli, ncar the river 
Numicus. Captured and 
coloriized by Romc, 442 b.c. 

Argi, -orum, m. jilnr. Argos, 
chicf town of Argolis, a 
state in the N. E. of tho 

Argivus, -a, -uni, adj. Of, 
or l)elonging t(j Argos. 

Argus, -i, m. Argus, the 
hundrod-eycd guardian of 

Aricia, -ae, /. Town in La- 
tium, nanied aftcr thc 
wifc of Hippolytus. [La 

Ascanius, -i, wi. Son of 
Aoncas and Creusa (also 
callcd Iulus\ Foundcr of 
Alba Longa. l\Iythieal an- 
cestor of the Julian family. 

Asia, -ae, /. Asia. 

Asius, -a, -um, adj. Asian. 
Sie note, 1. 701. 

Atiua, ac, /. A town of the 
Vdlsci in Latium. 

Aurora, -ae, / Thc goddcss 
of tho morning, daughter 
of Ilypcrion, and wiio of 
Tithonus. As a lommon 
noun = dawn. 

Auruncus, -a, -\\\n, <idj. Bc- 
longing to Ihc Aurunci, 
inhabitants of Aurunea in 

Ausonia, -ae, /. Tlic eDiuitry 
of tlie Ausonians, lowcr 
Italy. Uscd for Italy. 

Ausonius, -a, -um, adj. Of, 
or bcloniiing to Ausonia. 


Aventinus, -i, »i. (i) Sou of 

Ilcicules and Rliea. 2) 

Mt. Aventine. 
Averna, -orum, »1. i^?. adj., us 

nou7i. Of Lake Avernii.s. 

[Lago Averno.] Tliex\vcr- 

nian region. Hetl. 

Bacchus, -i, m. Son of Ju- 
I)iter and Semele, god of 
wine. Identical witli 
Greek Diony.-5Us. As com- 
mon uoun = wine. 

Batulum, -i, n. A town in 
Campania, built by the 

Bellona, -ae, /. Goddes.s of 
War ; sister of Mars. 

Caeculus, -i, m. Son uf 
Vulcan, founder of Prae- 

Caieta, -ae,/. ^Nurse of Ae- 
neas, after -whom was 
named Caieta [Gaeta] on 
the coast of Latiuni. 

Cales, -ium, /. j/?. A town 
in S. Campania, famou.s 
for wine. [Calvi.] 

Calybe, -e.s, /. Priestess of 

Calydon, -onis, /. Town in 

Camilla, -ae, /. Daughter of 
Metabus, a Volscian isrince. 
A great hunti-ess, who 
aided Turnus. Killed by 

Capenus, -a, -um, adj. Of 
Capena [.S. Martino], a 
town of the Veientes. 

Capreae, -arum, /. ^>Z. A 
small iskind off Campania 
[Capri]. Famous as thc 
residence of Tiberius. 

Casperia, -ae, /. A Sabine 

Catillus, -i, m. One of tliree 

brothers who built Tibur. 
Celemna, -ae, /. A Cam- 

panian town. 
Centauri, -orum, m. pl. The 

Centaurs, Tliessalian mon- 

sters, half-man, half-horse, 

sons of Ixion. 
Cerealis, -e, adj. Of Cercs ; 

made of corn. 
Ceres, -eris, /. Daughter <if 

Saturn and Ops. Identified 

with Demeter. Goddess 

of agi"iculture. As common 

noun — corn. 
Charybdis, -is, /. A whirl- 

pool, opposite to Scylla. 

between Italy and Sicilj'. 

Charybdis was the daugh- 

ter of Neptune, and war. 

cast into the sea by Jupiter 

for stealing the oxen of 

Chimaera, -ae, /. A fire- 

bi'eathing monster, part 

lion, part dragon, part goat, 

slain by Bellerophon. 
Ciminus, -i, h). Lake and 

mountain-forest in Etru- 

Circaeus, -a, -um, adj. Of 

Circe. C. terra (1. 10), 

Circeii, a promontory in 

Circe, -es and -ae, /. Daugh- 

ter of the Sun and Per?e, 

a sorceress, who lived in 

the island of Aeaea. 
Cisseis, -idis,/. Patronymic. 

Daughter of Cisseus, He- 

Claudius, -a, -imi, adj. Of 

the Claudian familv. 


Clausus, -i, )«. A Saliinc, 

ancostor of the Claudian 

Cocytius, -a, -um, adj. Of 

Coeytus; Hellish. 
Cocytus, -i, m. The rivcr 

of ' -wailing,' in tho lower 

Coras, -ac, m. One of three 

l>rothers who founded Ti- 

Corythus, -i, ni. Foundcr 

of Corytlius or Cortona in 

Crustumeri, -Orum. m. pl. 

A Sabine town. [Montc 


Danae, -Gs, /. Daugliter of 
Acrisius, and mothcr of 
Perscus by Jupiter. 

Dardanidae, -arum, m. pl. 
Patronymic, desccndants 
of Dardanus, Trojans. 

Dardanius, -a, -lun, adj- Of 
Dardanus, Trojan. 

Dardanus, -i, m. Son of 
Zeus and Electra, king of 
Arcadia, whcncc iie passed 
to Samothracc,and finally 
to Asia, where Tcucer gavc 
liim tlio land on which he 
l)uilt Dardania. Grand- 
father of Tros. 

Dardanus, -a,-um,orf;. Dar- 
dan, Trojan. 

Diaua, -ac, /. Daughter of 
Jupiter and Latona, and 
twin-sistcr of Apollo. 
Identificd witli Artemis. 
A maidon goddess, jjrcsid- 
ing ovcr Iiunting. Identi- 
fied with the Moon, and 
with Hecate in tho lowcr 

DIs, Ditis, 711. (rod of thc 
lower world, Pluto. 

Egeria, -ae, /, A nymph, 

wife and instructress of 

Numa, who had a grove 

near Aricia. 
Erato, 110 gen.,f. Thc muse 

of lyric poetry. Muse in 

general, 1. 37. 
Erebus, -i, m. God of dark- 

ncss, son of Chaos, and 

brother of Ivight. 
Eretum, -i, 71. A Sabino 

town. [Grotta Marozza ?] 
Erinys, -yos, /. Fury. Thc 

Roman Furiao or Dirae. 

Three goddesses of ven- 

geance, Allecto, Megaera, 

Tisiphone. Worshipped 

at Atliens. 
Europa, -ae,/. Europe. 

Fabaris, -is, nt. Tributary 
of thc Tiber in the Sabine 
countrj'. [Farfa.] 

Palisci, -orum, 7n. pl. See 

Faunus, -i, »«. Son of Picus, 
gi-andson of Saturn. father 
of Latinus. God of agri- 
culture and sheplicrds, 
subsequcntly identified 
witli Pan. 

Feronia, -ae,/. Italian god- 
dcss, ])atroncss of freed- 
mcn. Idcntificd with Jiino. 

Fescenniuus, -a, -um, adj. 
Of Fcsccnnia, a small 
]"trurian town on tho 

Flavinius, -a, -um, adj. Of 
Flavina o>'-inium in Etru- 


Fortuna, -ae,/. Gocldess of 

Foruli, -Oi"uni, jh. pl. A 

Sabiuetown, [CivitaTom- 

Piicinus, -i, m. A Marsian 

lakc. [Lago Fucino.J 
Furialis, -e, adj. Of a Fury. 

Gabinus, -a, -um, adj. Of 
Gabii, a town in Latiuni. 

Galaesus, -i, m. Son of 

Geryon, -onis, m. A Spanish 
king wilh three bodios, 
whose oxen Hercules car- 
ried off. 

Getae, -arum, m. p?. A 
Thracian tribe oii the 

Gorgoneus, -a, -um, adj. Of 
a Gorgon. The Gorgons 
were Stheno, Euryale, and 
Medusa ; their hair was of 
snakes, and all who looked 
on them were turned to 

Halaesus, -i, m. Son or fol- 
lower of Agamemnon , chief 
of tlie Aurunci ; killed in 
the war. 

Helena, -ae, /. Helen,daugli- 
ter of .Jupiter and Leda, 
."-isterof Castor andPollux. 
Slie niarried Menelaus, 
king of Spaita, but Hed 
with Paris to Troy, thus 
causing the Trojan war. 
After tho fall of' Troy shc 
returned to Menelaus. 

Helicon, -Gnis, m. A nioun- 
tain in Boeotia sacred to 

ApoUo and the Muses. 

Hercules, -is, m. Son of 
Juj^iter and Alcmene, the 
strongest of men. He 
performed twelve great 
labours, and at his death 
w;is takeii up to Olynipus. 

Herculeus, -a, -uni, adj. Of 

Hermus, -i, vi. A river in 
Asia Minor, forming the 
boundary between lonia 
and Aeolia. [Sarabat.] 

Hernicus, -a, -um, adj. Of 
the Hernici, a tribe in 
Latiunijbetween the Aequi 
and the Volsci. 

Hesperius, -a, -um, adj. Of, 
or belonging to the Even- 
iiig ; Western ; Italian. 
Hesperia (.sc terra), tho 
Western land, Italy. 

Hiberus, -a, -uni, adj. Spa- 

Himella, -ae, /. A Sabine 
river. [Aia.] 

Hippolytus, -i, m. Son of 
Theseus and the Amazoii 
Hippolyte. His step- 

mother, Phaedra, fell iu 
love with hini, and, being 
rejected, niade false ae- 
cusations against him to 
Theseus, which led to his 
death. He was restored 
to life by Diana and Aes- 
culapius, hisnamechanged 
to Virbius, and he was 
honoured as a god. 

Hcmole, -es, /. A mountain 
in Thessaly. 

Hortinus, -a, -um, adj. Of 
Hortannm, an Etrurian 


Hyrcani, -Gruni, m. }^l. Tlic 
inlialjitants of Hyrcania, 
to tlie S. of tlic Caspian. 

lauus, -i, m. [ire ; ianua.] 
A two-fnccd Italian God, 
' the opcner ' and ' tlic 
shutter.' His temple was 
open in war, closed in 

idaeus, -a, -uni, (clj. Of Ida. 
^i) a mountnin in Cretc ; 
(2) ncar Troy. 

Ilias,-adis,/. Trojan^voman. 

Ilioneus, -eT, m. A follower 

_ of Aencas. 

Inachius, -a, -um. adj. Ina- 

_ chian, Argive, Grecian. 

Inachus, -i, m. First king 
of Argos. The cliicf rivcr 
in Argolis. 

Indus, -i, m. An Indian. 

16, liis,/. Dniightcr of Ina- 
chus, bclovcd hy Jupitcr, 
and changed into a cow. 

Italia, -ae, /. Italy. 

Italus, -a, -uni, adj. Italian. 

Italus, -i, m. An aneient 
king of Italy. 

liilus, -i, m. Aniithcr iiamc 
of Ascanius. 

liino, -Onis, /. The chief 
goddess of the Roman 
mythology,being daugliter 
of Saturn, and sistcr nnd 
wife of Jupitcr. Id(>ntificd 
with tlie Grcek Hcra. 

luppiter, lovis, m. [Iovis = 
Diovis + pater.] Tlie head 
of tho Roman mytholoi;y, 
liaving dcthroncd his 
f:\ther, Saturn. Ilusband 
of Juno. Idcntificd with 
tho Greek Zeus. 

Labici, -Grum, vi. Inhabi- 

tants of Labicum, a L ttin 

town. [Colonna.] 
Lacedaemon, -onis, /. A 

town in tho S. E. of tlic 

Pcloponnesus, also called 

Laoracdon, -ntis, )/). King 

of Troy. 
Laomedontius, -a, -um, adj. 

Of Laomcdon ; Trojan. 
Lapithae, -annn or -um, m. 

]>l. A mountain tribe in 

Thessnly, who fougbt with 

the Centnurs at thc wed- 

ding of Pirithous. 
Latini, -orum, vi. pl. The 

Latinus, -i, ))). King of La- 

tium, father of Lavinia. 
Latinus, -a, -um, adj. Latiu. 
Latium, -ii, n. A country 

in Italy, in wiiich lies 

Rome. [Campagna di 

Laurens, -ntis, adj. Of Lau- 

rentum, a Latin town on 

the coast. 
Lausus, -i, m. Son of Me- 

zentius, slain by Acneas. 
Lavinia, -ae, /. Daughter 

of Latinu-;, betrotiied to 

Turnus, but married to 

Aeneas, to whom sho boro 

Aencas Silvius. 
Ledaeus, -a, -inn, adj. Of 

Ledn, mothcr of Castor, 

Pollux, Hden and Clyte- 

Libycus, -a,-um, adj. Libyan, 

Lycia, -ae,/. A country in 

Asia Minoi', between Caria 

and Pamphylia. 
Lycius, -i\,-\n\\,adj. Lycinii. 



Marica, -ac, /. A Latin 
nymph, mother of Latiniis 
liy Faunus. 

Mari-uvius, -a, -um, adj. Of 
Marruvium, a Lntin city, 
capital of tho Marsi. [S. 

Mirs, -tis, m. CtocI of war, 
father of Romulus. Ho 
was called Quirinus, as 
defender of the citizens ; 
Gradivus, as god of war ; 
Silvanus, as god of the 
country. Identified witli 
tho Greek Ares. 

Marsi, -Orum, m. pL A 
Latinijeoplo cn tlie Fucine 
lake, considei'ecl snake- 
charmers and magicians. 
Leaders of the Italians in 
the Social war. 

Marsus, -n, -um, adj. Mar- 

Martius, -a, -um, adj. Of 
Mars ; martial ; received 
in battle. 

Massicus, -n, -um, adj. Of 
Massicus. a mountain in 
the N. W. of Campania, 
celebratecl for its v/ine. 

Messapus, -i, m. A prince 
of several Etruscan towns. 
See 1. 691, notc. 

Mezentius, -i, m. King of 
Agylla, driven out by his 
subjects for his cruelty, 
ancl received by Turnus. 
Slain by Aeneas. 

Minerva, -ae, /. [Mens.] 
Daughter of Jupiter, god- 
dess of wisdom. Identified 
with Pallas Athene,daugh- 
ter of Zeus, goddess of 
wisdom, science, art, and 

Mutusca, -ac, /. A Sabine 

Mycenae, -arum, /. pl. A 
city in Argolis, seat of 
Agamemnon. Destroyed, 
468 B. c, by the Argives, 
but numerous remains 
may still be seen. 

Nar, Naris, m. A river 

which rises in tho Apen- 

nines, and fiows into tho 

Tiber. [Nera.] 
Neptunius, -a, -um, adj. Of 

Neptunus, -i, m. God of the 

sea, brother of .Jupitcr. 

Identified with tlic Greek 

Nersaa, -arum, /. pl. An 

Aecjuian town. 
Nomentura, -i, n. A Latin 

or Sabine town. [Men- 

Notus, -i, m. The south- 

wcst wind. 
Numicius [or Numicus], -i, 

m. A river in Latium. 

[Rio Torto.] 
Nursia, -ae, /. A Sabine 

town. [Norcin.] 

Oebalus, -i, m. A Cam- 

panian chief. 
Oenotria, -ae, /. The south- 

east of Italy ; Italy 

Olympus, -i, )H. A mountain 

in Thessaly, noarly 10,000 

fcet high, tho abocle of tho 
„ gods. Then = heaven. 
Orion, -onis, m. A famous 

hunter, of whose death 

there are many legends. 

After liis death, ho was 


placed among tho stars, 
as the constollation Orion, 
whose setting in Novembor 
is often accompanied by 

Osci, -orum, m. pL An 
carly Campanian peoplo. 

Othrys, -yos, m. A moun- 
tain in Thessaly. [lerako.] 

Pachynum, -i, n. The south- 
castern promontory of Si- 
cilj'. [Cape Passaro.] 

Paeonius, -a, -um, adj. Be- 
longing to Paeon, god of 

Pallas, -adis, /. Tho Greek 
goddess Athcnc. Identi- 
fiud with Minerva, goddess 
of war and wisdom. 

Paris, -idis, m. Son of 
Priam and Ilecuba. By 
carryiiig off Helen, lie 
brought about tho Trojan 
war, but ho was led to 
this seduetion by Venus, 
in whose favour he had 
decided the disputo as to 
the fairest of the god- 
dcsscs. In the war lie was 
cowardlj^ but succceded in 
killingAcliillcs. Woundcd 
by Philoctetes, ho retm-ned 
to his first wife, Oenone, 
who refiised to lielp liim, 
and iie went back to Troy 
to die. 

Partbi, -orum, m. pl. Tlio 
Parthians, a Scythian peo- 
ple, S. E. of tlic Caspian. 

Pergama, -orum, n. pl. Tho 
citadol of Troy ; used 
gcnerally for Troy. 

Phoebigena, -ae, m. Son of 
Phoebus; i. o. Aesculapius. 

Phoebus, -i, m. A name of 
Apollo, as sun-god. 

Phryges, -um, m. pl. Phry- 

Phrygia, -ac, /. A country 
in Asia Miuor. 

Phrygius,-a, -\\m,a<lj. Phry- 

Picus, -i, m. Son of Saturn, 
and father of Faunus. 
Circe changed him into a 

Pluto [Pluton], -onis, m. 
Brother of .Tupiter and 
Neptunc, liusband of Pro- 
serpina ; god of thc lowcr 

Praeneste, -is, n. A city in 
Latium, E. of Kome, 
famous for i-oses, nuts, and 
a tcniple of Fortunc. [Pa- 

Praenestinus, -a, -lun, adj. 
Of Praeneste. 

Priameius, -a, -uni, adj. Be- 
longiiig to Priam. 

Priamus, -i, m. l'riam, king 
of Troy, husliand of Hc- 
cuba, and fatlicr of fiftj' 
sons and as niany daugh- 
ters, the most fanious of 
whom were Hector, Paris, 
and Cassandra. He was 
slain by Pyrrhus during 
tho sack of Troy. 

Quirinalis, e, adj. Of, or 
bclonging to Quirinus, tlic 
namo of Komulus aftcr Iiis 

Quirites, -ium, m. ^)?. In- 
habitauts of Cures, a Sa- 
bino town. 



Rhea, -ae, /. A priestess, 

niother of Aventinus. 
Roma, -ae, /. Rojnc. 
Roseus, -a, -um, acJj. Of 

Rosea, a district near Lake 

Rufrae, -arum, /. pl. A 

Samnite town on the 

horders of Campania. 

Rutuli, -orimi, m. pl. An 

aneient Latin tribe, whose 

capital was Ardea, and 

king Turnus. 
Rutulus, -a, -um, adj. Ru- 


Sabellus, -a, -um, adj. Sa- 

bcllian, okl name for Sa- 

Sabinus, -a, -um, adj. Sabine. 
Sabinus, -i, m. Eponymous 

ancestor of the Sabines. 
Sacranus, -a, -um, adj. Of 

the Sacrani, aLatin pcoplc. 
Samos, -i, /. An ishmd off 

the coast of Thrace, the 

samc as Samothracia. 
Samothracia, -ac, /. Samo- 

thracc. [Samothraki ] 
Sarnus,-!,?». A Campanian 

river near Pompeii. 

Sarrastes, -ium, 7n. pL A 

peoplc of Campania, ncar 

the Sarnus. 
Saticulus, -i, )/(. An inha))i- 

tant of Saticula, a town of 

Samnium, on the frontiers 

of Campania. [S. Agata 

dei Goti.] 
Satura, -ae, /. A hake in 

Saturnius, -a, -lun, adj. Of, 

or belongincf to Saturn. 

Saturuus, -i, m. A niytliical 
Italian king, identified 
with the Greek Cronos, 
and made fatherof Jupiter. 
Juno, Neptune, &c. 

Scylla, -ae, / A rock be- 
twcen Italj' and Sicily, 
opposite to Charybdis. 
Personified as the daugh- 
ter of Phorcys, changed 
by Circe into a sea-monster, 
which devoured ships. 

Sebethis, -idis,/ A nymph, 
mother of Oebalus. 

Severus, -i, m. A mountain 
in the Sabine country. 

Sicani, -orum, m. pl. An 
ancient Italian peoplc on 
the Tiber, some of wliom 
subsequently migrated to 
Sicily. See \. 795, note, 

Siculus,-a,-um.rtrf/ Sicilian. 

Sidicinus, -a, -um, adj. Of, 
or belonging to the Sidi- 
cini, a Campanian people, 
whose chief town was 

Sigeus, -a, -um, adj. Of. or 
connected with Sigeum, 
the N. W. promontory of 
the Troad. 

Silvia, -ae, j'. Daughter of 

Soracte, -is, n. An Etrurian 
mountain on wJiich was 
a temple of Apollo. [Monte 
S. Oreste.] 

Stygius, -a, -um, adj. Of, 
or belonging to the river 
Styx, a rivor in the in- 
fernal regions, by which 
the gods swoi"e. 

Syrtis, -is, /. A sand-bank, 
especially SyrtisJIajorand 
Minor on the north coast 


of Africa, now (iulf of 
Sidra, and Gulf of Cabcs. 

Tartareus, -a, -um, adj. Of, 

or Ijelonging to Tartavus, 

tlie infernal rcgions. 
Teleboae, -um, m. i^l. An 

Acarnanian tribe, notod 

for robliery, a colony froiu 

whom inhabited the is- 

land of Cnprcae. 
Telou, -Onis, m. Father of 

Tetrica, -ae, /. A rocl<y 

Saljine niountain. 
Teucri, -orum or -um, m. pL 

Descendants of Teueer, 

firstkingofTroy ; Trojans. 
Teutonicus, -a, -um, adj. 

Threicius, -a, -um, adj. 

Thybris [also Tibris, Tyliris, 

nnd Tiberis], -is, m. Thc 

TibTrinus, -i, m. =T]iyliris. 

' Father Tiber.' 
Tiberis, -is, m. =Thybris. 
Tibur, -uris, n. A Latin 

town on the Anio. [Tivoli.] 
Tiburtius, -a, -um, adj. Of, 

or belonging to Tibur. 
Tiburtus, -i, m. One of the 

i'iiuuders of Tibur. 
Tirynthius, -a, -um, adj. 

Of, or belonging to Tiryns. 

As nonn — Hcrcules, who 

was brought up at Tiryns 

in Argolis. 
Trivia, -ae, /. Tho goddcss 

of threo ways, Diana. 
Troia, -ae,/. Troy. 
Troianus, -a, -um, adj. Tro- 


Troius, -a, -um, adj. Trojan. 

Tros, Trois, m. A Phrygiaii 
king from Avhom Troy was 
namcd. Troes = Trojans. 

Turnus, -i, m. King of tho 
Kutuli ; fought against 
Acneas whcn liis betrothed 
Lavinia was givcn to Ae- 
ncas; slain by tlie latter. 

Tyrrhenus, -n, -um, adj. 
Tyrrhenian, Etruscan. 

Tyrrheus, -ei, ?». Sheplierd 
of Latinus. 

Tyrrhidae, -arum, m. 2>l. Pa- 
tronymie. 8ons of Tjr- 

Ufens, -ntis, tn. A chief 
from Nersac, 1. 745 ; a 
rivcr in Latium [Ufente], 
1. 802. 

TJrabro, -Onis, m. Priest of 

Veliuus, -i, m. A Saliine 

Venus, -eris, /, Goddcss of 

love andbcauty, identified 

with tho Greek Aiihi-odite ; 

mother of Aeneas. 
Virbius, -ii, m,. A nanie of 

Ilippolytus ; a son ofHip- 

Volscus, -a, -um, adj. Vol- 

Vclturnus, -i, m. A river 

in Cnmpania. [Volturno.] 
Vulcanus, -i, vi. Vulcan, 

tho Roman god of firo, 

ilontified with the Greek 

Hephaestus. As common 

nonn — fire. 


a.= active, 
aOl. = ablative. 
acc.=: actiisative. 
aOj.— ad.jective. 
udr.= adveib. 
coinm.— coniiiion. 
C0/Ji/>.= coiiii)aiative. 
conj. = cunjunction. 
(lat.= dative. 
iieject.— defective. 
dem. = denionstiative. 
dep. = deponent. 
<?'!)i. = diniinutive. 
i>.ifl.= distiibutive. 

/.= feminine. 
J'ieq.=: frequentative. 
(/cn.= genitive. 
incept.= inceptive. 
iiu1ccl.=z indeclinable. 
indef.— indefinite. 
iatem.= intensive. 
inlerj. = interjection. 
interr.= interrogative. 
iij.= niasculine. 
H.= neuter. 
710)/!.= nominative. 
'nv.m.= nunieral. 
2xirl.= participle. 

2»«/. = perfect. 
'pers. = personal. 
plur. - plural. 
po<.= positive. 
poss.= possessive. 
prcp.= prcpositiiin. 
pres.= prebent. 
pron.= pvimoun. 
sinii.= singular. 
sk;>. = supine. 
svperl.= superlative. 
sync.= syncopated. 
r.= verb. 

"Words in parentlie^is, e.g. (aequus), .sliow tlie derivation of a word. 

a, ab, pre]}. icith ahl., froni, 

by ; since. 
abdo, -ere, -ditli, -ditum, v.a. 

i^ab -t- do), put away, re- 

movc ; iiide. 
abduco, -ere, -xi, -ctum, v. a. 

ab + duco), lead away. 
abeo, -Ire, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 

V. 11. (ab + eo^, go away, 
abnego, -arc, -avi, -atuni, r, a. 

(ab-i-nego), refuse, deny. 
abolesco, -ere, -evi, r. n. 

(aboleo), deuay, vanisli. 
absens, -ntis, adj. and part. 

rab-sum), absent. 
absisto, -ere, -stiti, no snp., 

v.n. (ab + sto), stand away 

from, depart from, 
abstineo, -ure, -ui, -teutum, 

V. n. (ab + teneo), kcep 

away from, refrain from. 
absum, -esse, -fui, v.n. ';;b + 

sum), am absent. 
absiimo,-ere, -mpsi, -mptum, 

r, a. (ab + sfimo), consume, 

abunde, adv., cojjiously, 

cnough of, 1, 552, icith gen. 
ac, conj., and, as. 
accendo, -ere, -di, -sum, r.a. 

(ad-cando), set on fire, 

accido, -ere, -cidi, cisum, 

v.a. (ad + caedo), cut down ; 

accingo, -ere, -hxi, -nctuni, 

V. a. (ad + cingo), gird on 

or to. 


accipio, -crc, -cOpi, -ceptum, 

V. a. (ad + capio), receive, 

accola, -ae, comm, (accolo), 

acer, acris, acro, a(Jj., sharp, 

kcon, fiercc, oager. 
acies, -Oi, /., edge ; battle- 

array ; army ; 1. 399, ej'cs. 
[aclys ?],aclydes, /. nom. i^Iur., 

sniall javelin, or chib. 
acuo, -ore, -ui, -utuni, v. «., 

sharpon, whet ; rouse, in- 

ad, pnq). tvith acc, to, towards, 

till, by. 
addo, -ore, -didi, -ditum, v. a. 

(ad + do), add, join to. 
adeo, -Tre, -Ivi or -ii, -itum, 

r. n. and «., appi-oach. 
adeo, adv., so, so much ; just, 

adfero, -forrc, attuli, -h"itum, 

V. a. (ad + fero), bring 

adfor, -fari, -filtus sum, r. dcp. 

(ad + fari), speak 'to, ad- 

adhuc, adv., thus far ; as yot. 
adigo, -cro, -v\i\, -actum, v. a. 

(ad + agoi, drivo, forco. 
adiungo, -oro, -nxi, -nctum, 

V. a. (ad + iungo), join to, 

adliido, -orc, -lusi, -lusum, 

V. n. (ad + h"ido), jost. 
admisc30, -Oro, -scui, -xtum, 

V. a. (a(l + miscoo\ minglo 

■\vith, mix. 
adoleo, -oro, -ui, -ultum, r. «. 

and n., honour ))y sacrifico ; 

adoreus, -a, -um, adj. (ador\ 

adorior, -ui, -ortus sum. 

V, dep. (ad + orior), risc to ; 

adsensus, -fis, m. (sentio), 

assont ; harmony. 
adspiro,-aro, -avi,-atum, v.a. 

and n. (ad + splro), broathc 

on ; blow. 
adsto, -arc, -stiti, no sii]>.,v. n. 

(ad + sto), stand at, or noar, 

or roady, 
adsuetus, -a, -um, part. (ad- 

suosco), accustomod. 
adsum, -csse, -fui, v.n. (ad + 

sum), am prosont, u-ith dat. 
advena, -ao, ni. (advonio), 

advenio,-Iro, -vOni, -vontum, 

V. a., como to ; arrivo. 
advento, -aro, -avi, -atum, 

V. n. iiitens, (advenio), 

come to ; arrive. 
adventus, -us, m. (advonio), 

ai>proach, arrival. 
adverto, -ore, -ti, -sum, r. a. 

and n. (ad + verto), turn to. 
adytum, -i, n,, not to le en- 

torod ; the inncrmost part 

of a templo ; sanctuary. 
aenus, -a, -um, adj, (ao.s), 

brazcn : 1. 463, aenum as 

noun, a brazon vossel. 
aequo, -aro, -fivi, -fitum,r. «., 

mako oqual. 
aeqiior, -oris, n. (aoquus), an 

ovon surfaco of land or 

aequus, -a, -um, adj., oqual, 

fair, just. 
aer, aeris, m., air. 
aeratus, -a, -mw, adj. (aes), of 

aereus, -a, -um, adj. (aes), of 

aerius, -a, -um, adj. (aer), 

porlainin':; to thoair. lofty. 


aes, aeris, «. , brass ; 2^l>'>'- 

wcapons of brass. 
aestus, -us, in., waving mo- 

tion, heat. 
aetas, -atis, /., age. 
aeternus, -a, -uni, adj. 

(nevum), everlasting. 
ae^her, -eris, '»1., u^iper air, 

aetherius, -a, -um, adj. 

(acther), ethereal. 
aevum, -i, n., ago, time. 
ager, agri, w., field, territory, 
agger, -eris, m. (ad + gero), 

pile, mound ; embank- 

agito, -are, -avi, -atum, r. a. 

fnq. (ago), put in motion, 

agmen, -inis, n. ( = agimon : 

ago), train ; column on llie 

ago, -erc, cgi, aetum, ». «., 

put in motion, drive ; im- 

inrative, age, come ! 
agrestis, -c, adj. (ager), bo- 

longing to the country, 

agricola, -ae, m. (ager + colo), 

husbandman, farmer. 
aio, V. defcdive ; ais, iiit, say. 
ala, -ae,/., ■sving. 
albesco, -ere, no perf. nor snp., 

V. n. incvpt. (albeo), become 

albus, -a, -um, adj., white. 
alga, -ae, /., sca-weed. 
alipes, -cdis, adj. (ala + pes\ 

wing-footed : 1. 277, horso. 
aliquis, -quid, in'on., some- 

one, some. 
alius, -a, -ud, adj. ancl pron., 

almus, -a, -um, adj. (alo), 

nourishing, kindly. 

altaria, -ium, n. 2'tur., high 

altar, altar. 
alte, adv. (^altus), high, 011 

alter, -a, -um, adj. and pron., 

one of two, thc other. 
altus, -a, -um, actj. (alo), 

high, deei^. 
alveus, -i,m. (alvus), hollow, 

channel, river-bed. 
ambio, -ire, -ivi atid -ii, 

-itum, V. a. (eo), go round, 

seck to gain. 
ambo, -ae, -o, adj., both. 
amens, -ntis, adj. (a + mens), 

out of one's mind ; fren- 

amicitia, -ae,/., friendship. 
amictus, -us, vi. (amicio), 

amicus, -a, -um, adj., (amo), 

amnis, -is, vi., river. 
amoenus, -a, -um, adj., plea- 

sant to sce, beautilul. 
amor, -Oris, m., love, desire 

anceps, -cipitis, ctdj., (an + 

caput), two-hcaded, two- 

edged,uncertain, doubtful. 
ancile, -is, n., a small oval 

shicld ; the shield tliat fcll 

fi-om heaven in Numa's 

anguis, -is, m. anclf., snako. 
anilis, -e, ctdj. (anus), of an 

old womaii. 
anima, -ae, /. , breath, soul, 

animus, -i,9«., mind,courage. 
annixs, -i, ni., year. 
ante, prep. iviih acc, before ; 

adr., licforc, formerly. 
antiquus, -a, -um, adj. (ante), 



anus, -ii>. y, oUl womaii, fcee 

1. 419, notc. 
aperio, -ire. -ui, -ertuni, v. a. 
ab + pario), oiien ; unfold. 
apex, -icis, »«., end, iioint, 

apis, -is, /., bee. 
appello, -ere, -puli, -pulsuni, 

V. a. (ad + j)ello), drivc to ; 

put in. 
apto, -are, -fivi, -atuni, ?■. «., 

fit, adjust, gct ready. 
iipud, preii. wit/t acc, near, Ijy, 

at the houso of. 
agtua, -ae, /., water. 
aquilo, -onis, »»., the north 

ara, -ac, /., altar. 
aratrum, -i, v(.'aro),aplough. 
arbos, -oris, /., trcc. 
arcanus, -a, -um, adj. (arca), 

seci'et, hidden. 
arceo, -ere, -cui, nosup. r. «., 

shut up, enclose ; hinder. 
arcus, -us, m., bow. 
ardeo, -ero, arsi, arsum, v.n., 

am 011 fire, burn. 
ardor, -oris, m., fire, fury. 
arduus, -a, -um, adj., high, 

argentum, -i, n., silvcr. 
argumentum, -i, n. (arguo), 

ovidence, proof ; subjcct. 
argiitus, -a, -um, adj. aud 

2}arl. (arguo), rattling, 

avies, -otis, 1)1., ram. 
arista, -ae, /., ear of corn. 
arma, -orum, n. pliir., v/hixi is 

fitlod ; arms. 
armentum, -1, n. (aro\ 

armo, -aro, -avi,-ritum, v. a., 

fiirnisli with wcapons, 

arm, equip. 

aro, -are, -avi, -atuni, v. a., 

ars, artis, /.. art, skill, craft. 
artus, -us, ?»., joint ; nsuaUij 

jilur., limbs. 
arvina, -ae, /., grcase, fat. 
arvum, -i, n. (aro), ploughcd 

land, ficld. 
arx, arcis, /. (arceo), strong- 

hold, citadel. 
asper, -era, -orum, adj.. 

rough, cruel. 

V. a. (ad + specio , bchold, 

look at. 
assiduus, -a, -um, adj. (assi- 

deoi, incessant, continual. 
ast, conj. (at), but. 
astrum, -i, n., star. 
at, conj., but. 
atavus, -i, m. (avus), thc 

father of a great-grcat- 

grandfathcr ; anccstor. 
ater, -tra, -trum, adj., black, 

atque, conj., and, as. 
atrium, -ii, n., fi>ro-court, 

attactii, abl. sing. no nom. 

(attingo), touehing, touch. 
attingo, -ere, -tigi, -tactum, 

V. a. (ad + tango), touch, 

attollo, -ere, no pcrf. or su.p.. 

V. a. (ad + tollo\ lift uji. 

attonitus, -a, -um, ud/. 

(attono), thundcr-struck, 

auctor, -oris, vi. and /., 

fouador, dcsigner. 
audax, -acis, adj. iaudco"', 

audeo, -ere, ausus sum. r. 

scmi-dep. n. and a., daro. 



audio, -iic, -ivi o/ -ii. -itum, 

r. «., hcar. 
augeo, -cie, -xi, -ctiim, c. ((., 

iuei-ease, heap, swelh 
augurium, -ii, n. f^avis + 

garrio), observation of 

omens ; sign, omen. 
auguro,-are, -avi, -atum,r.n., 

surmise, divine. 
augustus, -a, -um, adj. 


aura, -ae,/., air, breeze. 
aureus, -a, -um, adj. (auruni), 

auris, -is, /., car. 
aurum, -i, n , gokl. 
aiispicium, -ii, n., divination 

by observing tlie fiight of 

birds ; omen, sign. 
aut, conj.. or. 
autem, cmij., but, now. 
auxilium, -ii, n., help ; ^;??»". 

averto, -ere, -ti, -sum, r. a. 

la + vertoi, turu away. 
avis, -is, /., bird. 
avitus, -a, -um, udj. (avus), 

belonging to a grand- 

father ; ancestrah 
avius. -a, -um, adj. (a + via), 

patliless ; 1. 580, n. plur. us 

noun, unfrc(|uented spots. 
avus, -i, m., grandfather, 


balans, -ntis (balo), pres. x>art. 

nscd as noun, sheep. 
bellatrix, -icis, / (bellum), 

fcmale ■warrior. 
bellum, -i, n. ( = duelluni), 

bibo, -ere, bibi, -bitum, v. a., 


bideu£, -tis, /. (bis + dens), 

"witli two teeth ; sheep. 
bifrons, -tis, adj. (bis + frons), 

"with two foreheads. 
bigae, -ariun, /. p?z(r. (bis 

+ iugum), two-horsed 

bini, -ae, -a, dist. numercd, 

two each. 
bos, bovis, tn. andf., ox, cow. 
biicina, -ae, /, horn, ■war- 

buxum, -i, n., box-wood toi). 

caecus, -a, -um, adj., blind, 

hidden, dark. 
casdes, -is,/., slaughter. 
caedo, -ere, cecidi, caesum, 

V. a., cut down, slay. 
caelestis, -e, adj. (caelum), 

heavenly : plur. heavenly 

beings, gods. 
caelo, -are, -avi, -atum, r. «., 

engrave, emboss. 
caelum, -i, n., hcaven, sky. 
casruleus, -a,-um, adj., dark- 

coloured like the sea ; blue, 

caerulus, -a, -um, udj., dark, 

calathus, -i, m., wlcker- 

basket for thread or wool. 
campus, -i, m., ijlain. 
candidus, -a, -um, adj. (can- 

deoj, bright, wliite. 
canis, -is, m. andf., dog. 
cano, -ere, cecini, cantum, 

r. «. cmd n. , sing, prophesy. 
cauorus, -a, -um, adj. (cano), 

melodious, tuneful. 
cantus, -us, m. (eano), song, 

capio, -ere, cepi, captum, 

r. «., take, seize : I. 403, 



captivus, -a, -iim, adj. 

(capio), prisoncr. 
caput, -itis, n., liead. 
cardo, -inis, m., i>ivot and 

socket, liinge. 
carina, -ae,/., keel, ship. 
carpo, -ore, -i^si, -ptum, r. a., 

l)ick, enjoy. 
castra, -oruni, n. pJur., camp. 
castus, -a, -uni, (uJj., pure. 
cateia, -ae, /., a missile ; 

catsrva, -ae,/. , crowd, troop. 
causa, -ae, /., cause, reason. 
cavo, -are, -fivi, -atum, v. «., 

cedo, -ere, cessi, cessum, 

V. 71., go away, retire ; with 

dat., yield to. 
cedrus, -i,/., cedar-wood. 
cellbro, -are, -avi, -atum, 

V. a., frequent, fill, crowd, 

celer, -eris, -ere, adj., swift. 
celsus, -a, -um, adj., lofty. 
centura, numeral adj. indvcl., 

a hundred. 
cerno, cre, ci'evi, cretum 

(ho i5Pi/. u-hen = see), sift ; 

distinguisli, see. 
certamen, -inis, n. (certo), 

struggle, conflict. 
certatim, adv. (certo), emu- 

lously, cagerly. 
certus, -a, -um, adj. (cerno), 

dotormined, suro. 
cervus, -i, m., stag. 
cetra, -ae, /., short sliield, 

eeu, conj. and adi\, as, as if. 
chorus, -i, m., dancc ; band, 

cieo, -frc, clvi, citum, v.a., 

put in motion, rousc. 

ciuctus, -us, m. (cingo), 

cingo, -ere,-nxi,-nctum,r.o., 

gird ; wrcatho. 
circa, adv., around. 
circum, adv. and prep. u-ilh 

acc, round, around. 
circumsto, -stare, -steti, no 

sujj. v. n. (circum + sto), 

stand round, surround. 
clamo, -arc, -avi, -atum, v. n., 

shout, cry. 
clarus, -a, -um, adj., bright, 

clcar, loud. 
classicum, -i, n., trumpet. 
classis, -is, /., army, flcet. 
claudo, -cre, -si, -sum, r. «., 

shut, close. 
claustriim, -i, n. (claudo), bar, 

clipeatus, -a, -um, adj. (cli- 

peus~\, shield-bcaring. 
clipeus, -i, m., round shield. 
coeo, -Irc, -Ivi or -ii, -itiun, 

v. n. (cum -t- eo), go on, come 

coepi, -isse, -ptum,r. de/ective, 

a. and n., begin. 
cognomen, -inis, n. (cum -i- 

(g)nomon), name added to 

the nomen, family name or 

epithct ; name. 
cogo, -ere, coegi, coactum, 

r. a. (cum-i-ago", drivo to- 

gothcr, gatlier, compcl, 
cohors, -rtis, /., enclosed 

phicc ; companyof soldier.s, 

band, multitude. 
colligo, -ere, -l6gi, -lectum, 

V. a. (cum + lcgo), gathcr, 

collis, -is, m., hill. 
colloquium, -ii, n. (cum -H 

loquori, convcrsation. 
collum, -i, n., ncck. 


colo, -orc, -ui. -eulfum, r. a., 

cultivate, inhabitjWorship, 

colonus, -i, VI. (colo^, settler, 

color, -oris. vi., colour. 
coluber, -bri, m., snake. 
columna, -a<'. /"., column, 

colus, -i and -fis, /"., distaff. 
coma, -ae. /, hair, foliage. 
comitor, -ari, -atus sum, v. 

dep. a. (comes), attend, 

comminus, adv. (cinn -i- ina- 

nus), haud to hand. 
committo, -ore, -niTsi, -mis- 

sum, V. a. (cum -i- mitto), 

join, jointogether ; niatch. 
commoveo, -ere, -movi, -mo- 

tiun,r.«. (cum -I- moveo),put 

in motion, rouse, excite. 
como, -ere, -mpsi, -mptum, 

r. a., dress, deck, wroathe. 
compleo, -ore, -evi, -etum. 

V. a. (cum H-pleo), fill. 
compono, -ere, -posui, -posi- 

tum, r. a. '^cum + jiOno), put 

togother, ,join. 
comprendo, ere, -di, -sum, 

V. a. (cum + i^rendo = pre- 

hendo), grasp, catch. 
concedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, 

V. n. and a., yield, grant ; 

give over. 
concito, -are, -avi, -atum, 

r. freq. a. (concieo), stir up, 

conclamo, -."ire, -avi, -atum, 

r. n. und a. (cum + chimo), 

cry aloud ; sunimon. 
concurro, -ere. -curii, -cur- 

sum, r. n. (cum + curro), 

run together. 
concutio, -oro, -cussi, -cii5- 

sum, V. a. (cum + quatio), 

condo, -cre, -didi, -ditum. 

r. a. (cum + do), join to- 

gotlier; build ; liido. 
couicio, -ere, -ieei, -iectum, 

r. a. (cum + iacio), throw 

togother, lunl. 
coniugium, -ii, n. (coniugo', 

coniunx, -ugis, m. and f. 

(cum + iungo), husband, 

consanguineus, -a, -um, adj. 

(cum + sanguis), of like 

blood, kin. 
consido, -ere, -sSdi, -sessum, 

V. n. (cum + sido), sit down, 

consilium, -ii, n., counsol, 

adviee, design. 
conspiro, -are, -avi, -atum, 

r. n. (cum + spiro), blow or 

soiuid together. 
cousul, -is, m., consuL 
consulo, -ere, -ui, -ultum, 

V. n. and a., consider, con- 

consiimo, -cre, -psi, -ptum, 

V. a. (cum + sumo), take 

completely, devour. 
consurgo, -ere,-rexi,-rectum, 

r. n. (cum + surgo), rise. 
contemptor, -Oris, m. (con- 

temno , despiser. 
contentus, -a, -\im,par(. (con- 

tineo), contont with. 
conterreo, -ore, -ui, -itum, 

v.a. (cum + terrco), dismay 

greatly, lerrify. 
contingo, -ere, -tigi, -taetum, 

V. a. cum+tango), touch, 

continuo, adv. (cum + tenoo), 

forthwith, straightway. 


contorqueo, -Gre, -torsi, -tor- 

tiun, r.a. (ciiin + torqueo), 

turn, twist, liurl. 
contra, udv. and pnp. icilh 

«tc, against ; on tho otlior 

liand ; in rfj^ly. 
contrarius, -a, -um, adj. (con- 

tra\ oi>i)iisitf, contrary to. 
contremisco, -ere, -tremui, 

no siq}., V, inctpt. n. and a., 

(cum + tremisco), shako all 

over, quiver. 
conubium, -il, n., marriagc 

See 1. 96, note. 
convecto, -are, -avi, -atum, 

V. a. (cum + vecto),carry olF. 
converto, -ere, -ti, -sum, v. a. 

(cum + verto), turn. 
coquo, -ere, -xi, -ctum, v. «., 

cook, vex. 
cor, cordis, n.. Iieart. 
cornipes, -pedis, adj. (cornu 

+ l)es), iiorn-lioofed. 
cornu, -\is, n., horn ; bow ; 

corona, -ae, /, crown, gar- 

corono, -are, -avi, -atum, v.a. 

(^corOna), crown. 
corpus, -oris, n., body. 
cortex, -icis, Wi. and rareUjf., 

cos, cotis, /., whetstone. 
costa, -ae, /., rib, side. 
crater, -oris, m., mixing- 

cratis, -is, /., wiclier-work ; 

ribs of a sliield. 
credo, -ere, -didi, -ditum, 

r. n. ivith dut., believe, 

cremo, -are, -avi, -atum, r. «., 

creo, -are, -rivi, -atum, r. a., 

create, beget ; lireetl. 

crepito, -ifi-e, r.freij.n.(cveiw), 

rattle, erackle. 
crimen, -inis, ?<., charge, 

crinalis, -e, adj. (crinis, of 

the liair. 
crinis, -is, m,, hair. 
crinitus, -a, -um, perf. ixirt. 

(crinio\ long-haired, 

crista, -ae,/., crest. 
criidesco, -ei-c, -dui, no sup., 

V. incejit. n. (crudus). grow 

more 1'urious o/- bloody. 
crijdus, -a, -um, adj., of raw 

cruentus, -a, -um, adj., 

I cruor), blood-staincd, 

crustum, -i, n., anytliing 

Ijakcd, crust. 
culmen, -inis,//. ( = columen), 

lieight, top, roof. 
cum, jjrti?. with ald., witli. 
cum, conj., when, sinee, 

cunctor, -ari, -atus sum, 

r. deii. n., dehiy, hesitate. 
cunctus, -a, -um, adj. v^ciun 

+ iungo), all, wliole. 
cuneus, -i, m., wedge. 
cupido, -inis, /. (cuijidus), 

desire, love. 
cura, -ae, /., care, annoyance ; 

object of care. 
curia, -ae, /, senate-house. 
currus, -us, m. (curro), 

chariot, car. 
cursus, -us, tii. ^curro), run- 

ning, course. 
curvo, -are, avi, -atum, v. a., 

arch, bend. 
curvus, -a, -um, adj., bent, 

cuspis, -idis,/, spear; point. 


custodia, -ae, /. (ciistos), 

kocping ; c-ari' «>f. 
custo.s, -Odis, VK, keoper, 

cyenus, -i, m., swan. 

daedalus, -a, -um, ac{i., skil- 

ful, cunning. 
[daps 1, daj)is, /., feast. 
de, 2^i'<T- u^ith ahl., down froni, 

fi'oni, of, according to. 
dea, -ao, /., goddess. 
debellator, -Oris, m. (de- 

bello), conqueror. 
debeo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. a. 

(de-f habeo), owe, ought. 
decerno,-ere, -crevi, -cretum, 

r. «., decide, decree, ordain. 
deeus, -oris, n., ornameiit ; 

beauty ; lionour. 
defero, -ferre, -tuli, -hltum, 

r. a. (de -i- fero), bear down, 

bi'ing to. 
defessus, -a, -um, part. (de- 

fetiscor), wearied. 
defigo, -ere, -xi, -xum, r. «., 

(de + figo), fasten down : 

defluo, -ere, -xi, -xum, r. n. 

(de -t- fluo), flow down. 
deinde,rtf/r., tlien, afterthat. 
delabor, -i, -psus sum, r. dep. 

n. (^de -t- hibor^, glide down. 
deligo, -ere, -legi, -lectum, 

r. a. (de + lego), choose, 

demitto, -ere, -misi, -mis- 

sum, r. a. (de + mitto), 

send down. 
dens, -ntis, m., tooth. 
denso, -are, -avi, -atum, and 

denseo, -ere, v. a. and ?(., 

make thick, thicken. 
densus, -a, -imi, adj., tliiek. 

depono, -ere, -posui, -posi- 

tum, V. a. (de-t-pOno), put 

down, hiy aside. 
derigeseo, -ere, -rigui, nostip., 

V. incepf. n., become stiff. 
dcscendo, -ere, -di, -sum, 

r. n. (de + scando), descend. 
desero, -erc, -ui, -sertum, 

V. «., desert, abandon. 
deserta, -Orum, n. pl. part. 

itsed as noun (desero), de- 

sort, waste places. 
designo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

V. a., mark out. 
despecto, -are, -avi, -atum, 

V. a. (despicio), look down 

desuetus, -a, -um, adj. (de- 

suesco), unaccustomed, 

desum, -esse, -fui, v. n. (de + 

sum\ am wanting. 
detriido, -ere, -si, -sum, r. a. 

(de + trudo), thrust down. 
deus, -i, m., god. 
dexter, -era, -terum or -tra, 

•trum, adj., on thc riglit ; 

dextera or dextra (sc. ma- 

nus), fls noim, /., right 

dicio, -onis, /., sway, do- 

dico, -ere, -xi, -ctum, r. a., 

tell, say, nanie. 
dictum, -i, n., word, saying. 
dido, -ere, -didi, -ditum, r. a., 

spread abroad, distribute. 
dies, -ei, »H. orf. (iyi plur. onhj 

■»!.), day ; time. 
diffundo, -ere, -fudi, -fusum, 

V. a. fdis-ffundo), sjjread, 

branch out. 
digmis, -a, -um, adj., worthy. 



dirigo,-crc,-rcxi,-rectum,i'. rt. 

(dis+rcgo), lay straight ; 

aim ; draw xip. 
dirimo, -crc, -cmi, -cmptiim, 

v.a. (dis + cmo), takc apart, 

dirus, -n, -um. ((dj., fcarful, 

ilrcad. See 1. 324, notc. 
discordia, -ae, /. (diseor-i), 

disscnsion, strife. 
disicio, -erc, -ieci, -icctum, 

V. a. (dis + iaeio), dasli 

asunder, scatter. 
dissideo, -ere, -sedi,-sessum, 

r. n. (dis + scdeo jsitajjart; 

am rcmotc from. 
distraho, -erc, -xi, -ctum, 

V, a. (dis + tralio), iiull 

asundcr, drag tliis way 

and that. 
ditissimus, -a, -um, cuJj., 

siipni. o/divcs. 
diva, -ac, /., goddess, 
diversus, -a, -um, adj. (dis 
+ verto), turncd diffcront 

ways ; in dlffcrcnt dircc- 

dives, -itis, cuJJ. ; comp. di- 

tioi- ; siq)erl. dltissimus, 

divus, -i, gen. iilur. dlvum 

or -om, m., god. 
do, dare, dedi, datiim, r. «., 

givc, allow. 
dolon, -Onis, in., pikc or 

dolor, -Oris, w(., pain, sorrow, 

dominarier, inf. o/dominor. 
dominor, -ari, -atus sum, 

V. dcp. n. (dominus), lord 

it, rule. 
doraito, -arc, no perf. or snp., 

r. freq. a. (domo), tamc, 


domitor, -oris, m. (domo), 

tamer, brcakcr. 
domus, -us, acc. plnr. domos 

and -us, cjen. jdnr. donnuun 

and diimfirum,/., liouse. 
donura, -i, n. (do). gift. 
dos, dotis,/. (do), dowry. 
doto, -arc, -avi, -atum, r. a. 

(dos\ ciidow, dowcr. 
dubito, -arc, -avi,-atiiiii,r.«., 

am doul)tful, hcsitatc. 
dubius, -a, -um, adj., doubt- 

diico, -crc, -xi, -ctuin, ?•. «., 

Icad ; marry. 
dum, conj., whilc ; until. 
duo, -ae, -o, gen. duum or 

duorum, dat. dudbus, 

-abus, two. 
duplex, -icis, adj., twofold, 

durus, -a, -um, adj., liard, 

dux, ducis, m. andf., leadcr. 

e = cx. 

ecce, interj., lo ! behold ! 

edo, -erc or esse, 6di, csum, 

V. a., eat, 
edo, -erc, -didi, -ditum, v.a., 

givc fortli, uttcr, bring 

educo, -crc. -duxi, -ductum, 

V. u. (c + duco), Icad out ; 

efferus, -a, -\im, adj., veiy 

wikl, ficrcc. 
effetus, -a, -um, adj., that 

lias brought fortli young; 

worn out. 
efflgies, -ci, /. (ex + fingo), 

Iikcness ; image, 
efflo, -are, -avi, -atum, r. a. 

ancl n., blow or breathoout. 



efifor, -Ari, -atus sum, v. dcp. 

a. VX + farij, utter. 
efifugio, -erc, -lugi, -fugitiun, 

V. n. ;ex-ffugio), fiee ouf, 


propped up, suppoi-ted. 
effundo, -ere, -fudi, -fiisum, 

V. a. (ex -I- fundo), pour 

out ; tlirow out. 
egeo, -ere, -ui, 710 srq). v. 71. 

ivilh ahl. or gen., am witli- 

out ; need. 
ego, pe)-s. 2)r<mmn, I ; empha- 

siicd hij -met, egomet. 
egregius, -a, -um, adj. (e -i- 

grex), picked out ; dis- 

eligo, -ere, -legi, -lectum, 

V. a. (e-t-lego), pick out, 

emetior, -tlri, -mensus sum, 

V. dcp. a., measure out ; 

pass through. 
en, interj., lo ! behokl ! 
enim, conj., for. 
enitor, -i, -nlsus or -nixus 

sum, V. dej). a. and n. (e -f- 

nitor), bring forth, bear. 
ensis, -is, »«., sword. 
eo, Ire, ivi or ii, itum, v. n., 

epulae, -arum, /. plur. (epu- 

him), feast, banquet. 
eques, -itis, jh., horseman ; 

as coUective 710101 = cavalry. 
equidem, adv. (e + quidem\ 

equus, -i, >n., horse. 
ergo, adv. and conj., there- 
erigo, -cre, -rexi, -rcctuni, 

V. a. (e-j-rego), set up, lift 

eripio, -ere, -ui, -rejitum, >: a. 

(e + ra]jio), snatch away ; 

catch up. 
erro, -are, -avi, -atum, r. »., 

error, -oris, ?w., wandering, 

mistake in. 
et, conj., and, also, even. 
etenim, co7iJ., for indeed ; 

and indeed. 
etiam, conj., also ; morcover ; 

even ; still. 
evalesco, -ere, -ui, ho sap., v. 

incept. n., become strong; 

liave power to. 
evce, i7ilerj., a shout of joy. 
evolo, -are, -avi, -atum, r.n. 

(e -I- volo\ ily out. 
ex, ijrej}. tcith ahl., out of, 

from, aftcr. 
examen, -inis, 71. ^ex -1- ag- 

men), swarm. 
exardesco,-ere, -arsi, -arsum, 

V. incept. n. (ex + ardeo), 

kindle ; blaze fortli. 
exaudio, -ii-e, -Ivi or -ii, 

-itum, V. V. (ex-faudio), 

hear clearly. 
excio, -ire, -Ivi or -ii, -Ituni 

or -itum, v. a. (ex-(-cieo), 

call forth, rouse. 
excipio, -ere, -cepi^-ceptum, 

V. a. (ex-i-capio), take out ; 

excutio,-ere, -cussi, -cussum, 

V. a. (ex -I- quatio), shake 

off ; drive out. 
exerceo, -ere, -ui, -itum, r. a. 

(ex -I- arceo), drive on ; 

keep busy ; practise, use ; 

exercitus, -iis, in. (exerceo), 

exhalo, -arc, -avi, -atum, 

V. a., breathc out. 
exhorresco,-ero,-r)ii, «0 snp., 


V. incept. n. and a., shuddor ; 

exhortor, -ari, -atus suni, 

?'. (kp. a. (ex + liortor), en- 

courage ; clieer. 
exigo, -ere, -Ogi, -actum, v. a. 
ex + ago', drive out ; pass, 

drag out. 
exiguus, -i\,-\\m,u(IJ. (exigo), 

sniall, little. 
eximius, -a, -um, «f?y.(exim<)} , 

clioice, excellent. 
exin, adr., thencc, then. 
exitium, -ii, n. (exeo), going 

out, destruction, ruin. 
exordium, -ii,»i. (ex + ordior), 

expedio, -Ire, -Ivi or -ii, 

-Itum, V. a. (ex + pes), set 

free ; exiihiin. 
experior, -Iri, -rtus suni, r. 

dcp. n. and a., try, prove. 
expleo, -ere, -evi, -Otum, 

r. a. (ex + pleo), fill up, 

exploro, -arc, -avi, -atum, 

V. a., searcli out, examine. 
exposco, -erc, -poposci, vo 

sup. V. a. (ex + posco), aslv 

earnestly, entreat. 
exquiro, -ere, -qulsivi, -quisl- 

tum, V. a. (ex + quaero), 

search out. 
exsaturo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

r. a., sate, glut. 
exscindo, -ere, -scidi, -scis- 

sum, r. a. (cx + scindo), 

exsequiae, -rirum, ./'. (exse- 

quor), funeral prncesNion ; 

funeral rites. 
exstinguo,-erf,-nxi, -nctum, 

r. «., i)ut out, slay. 
exsul, -is, m. and/., exile. 
exsulto, -ilre, -iivi, -atum, (. 

ficq. n, (exsilio;, leap up, 

exsupero, -are, -avi, -atum, 

r. «. (ex + supero), rise 

above, sui'pass ; r. >!., rise 

extemplo, adv. (ex + tem- 

pore), straightway. 
extendo, -ere, -di, -tum and 

-sum, V. a. (ex + tendo), 

stretch out, extend. 
externus, -a, -um, adj. (ex- 

ter), foreign. 
extremus, -a, -um, s((;x)7. 

adj. (exter = cxterus), ut- 

most, last. 
exiibero, -iVre, -avi, -atum, 

r. n., pour out ; surge. 
exuo, -ere, -ui, -utum, v. «., 

strip ; doff. 

facies, -ei,/., face, look. 
facio, -ere, feci, factum, 

r. «., make, do ; jMfiffii-c, fio, 

fieri, factus sum, am made, 

factum, -i, n. ^facio), deed. 
falcatus, -a, -um. adj. (falx), 

sickle-shaped ; cnsis fal- 

catus, falchion or scimitar. 
fallo, -ere, fefelli, falsum, 

r. «., deceive,escape notice ; 

falx, -cis--,/., sickle ; pnining- 

fama, -ae, ./., leport. 
fames, -is, ./'., hungcr. 
fas, n. indcdin., divine law, 

fascis, -is, m. fagi>t ; pli(r., 

(he fasces. Sa 1. 173, note. 
fatillis, -e, adj. ifatuni . fated. 
fateor, -eri, fassus sum, r. dcp. 

)i., confess, acknowledge. 


fatidicus, -a, -um, adj. (ffi- 

tuin + clieo\ proplietic. 
fatigo, -are, -avi, -utum, v. «., 

wcary. importune. 
fatum, -i, n. i^fari), fate, 

fatur, ^rd sinrf. pres. inchc. of 

r. flekff. n., fari, fatus sum, 

fauces, -ium, /. plur., throat. 
fax, facis, /., torch. 
fecundus, -a, -um, adj., fruit- 

ful, ftrtile. 
felix, -icis, adj., happj^, pro- 

pitious ; fruitful. 
femineus, -a, -um, adj. 

(ff-niina), belonging to a 

fera, -ae, / (ferus), wild 

fero, ferre. tuli. latum, r. «., 

carry, bear, endure ; say ; 

2Jassiie, rusli. 
ferox, -Ocis, adj. (ferus), wild, 

savage ; high-spirited. 
ferratus, -a, -um, adj. (fcr- 

runi , covered with iron. 
ferrum, -i, n., iron ; weapon. 
ferus, -a, -um, adj., \vi\d ; as 

noun, 1. 489, beast. 
fervidus, -a, -um, adj. (fer- 

vor . glowing hot ; boiling, 

fessus, -a, -um, adj., wearj', 

festino, -are, -fivi, -atum, 

v. n., hastcn. 
fibula, -ae, /. (figo), chisp, 

fides, -ei, /. (fldo" , faitli, 

trust, honour, pledge. 
fido, -ere, fisus sum, r. //. 

u-ilh dul., trust. 
fidus, -a, -um, adj., faithful, 


figo, -ere, fixi, fixum, r. «., 

fix, fiisten ; pierce. 
filia, -ae, /., daughter. 
filius, -ii, m., son. 
fingo, -ere, -nxi, -ctum, v. «., 

form, shape, fancy. 
finis, -is, m. andf., end ; plur., 

finitimus, -a. -um,«^?y.(finis), 

fio. See facio. 
flagellum, -i, n. dim. (fla- 

grum), whip, scourge. 1. 
jSr, thong. 
fiagro, -are, -avi, -fitum, v. n , 

flamma, -ae. /., flame. 
flammeus, -a, -um, udj. (flam- 

ma), fiaming. fiery. 
flatus, -i\s, m. (flo), blast. 
flavens, -ntis, part. (flaveo), 

flavus, -a, -um, adj., goldcn- 

flecto, -ere, flexi, -xum, r. «., 

bcnd, guide ; weave. 
fleo, -ere, -evi, -etum, v. n. 

and «., weep ; hTment. 
floreo, -ere, -ui, no sup., v. n. 

(flos), bloom, flourish. 
flos, -ris. m., flower. 
fluctus, -ijs, m. (fluo), wave. 
flumen,-inis, n. (fluo;,stream, 

fluvius, -ii, m. (fluo), river. 
fo^do, -are, -avi, -atum, v. «., 

makc foul, pollute, mar. 
fcedus, -a, -um. adj., foul. 
foedus, -eris, n. (fido),treaty. 
fons, -tis, »/(., stream, foun- 

ta i n. 
forma, -ae, /., shape, beauty. 
formido, -inis, /., terror, 




fornax, -acis, /., furnaco, 
fors, -tis, /., chance ; abl. 

forte, used adverbiaUy, by 

fortis, -e, a<lj., brave, strong. 
fortiuia, -;ie, /., fortuue, 

cliance, condition. 
fossa, -ae, /. (fodio), ditcli. 
fragor, -oris, m., roar, crasli. 

roai-iiig ; brol^en. 
frango, -ere, fregi, fractuui, 

r. ((., breal(. 
frater, -ris, m., brother. 
fraus, -dis, /., deceit, guile. 
frerao, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. n., 

chafe, snort ; cry. 
frigidus, -a, -um, adj. (frlgeo), 

cold, cliill. 
froudeo, -Ore, 710 pcrf. or su}!., 

r. n. i.frons i), have leaves ; 

2>rvs. imrt,, lcafy. 
frondosus, -a, -uni, adj. 

(frons i), leafy. 
frons, -dis, /., lenf. 
frons, -tis, /., brow. 
fruor, -i, fructus suni, v. dcqi. 

n. ivitli abl., enjoy. 
fuga, -ae, /. (fugio), ilight, 

fugio, -erc, fiigi, fugitum, 

V. n. and a., Hec ; shun. 
fulgeo, -Ore, -si, no sujh, v. n., 

fulmen,-inis, j). ( = fulgimen, 


fulvus, -a, -um, adj., yellow; 

ofgold, red. 
ftimo, -are, no iJc/;/; uc sup., 

r. n., smokc. 
fLimidus,-a,-uiii, (((//. ( rriinus\ 

fundator, -Ori.s, (H. i^fuiulo i , 


fundo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a., 

fundo, -ere, fudi, fusum. r. «., 

pour, ])roduce ; spcnd. 
fundus, -i, m., bdttoin. 
fiinereus, -a, -um, adj. i^fu- 

nusi, funcreal ; deadly. 
fiinestus, -a, -uin, adj. (fu- 

nus), deadly, fatal. 
funus, -eiis, n., i"uiuTal; 

furia, -ae, /., fury. 
furialis, -e, ailj- vfi'i"'<i)) of a 

fiiry, maddening. 
furibundus, -a, -um, adj. 

(furo), frcnzied. 
furo, -ere, noptrf. or sup., v. n., 

rage, rave. 
furor, -oris, m., fury, frenzy. 
ffiror, -firi, -atiis suiii, c. dop. 

a. (fur), steal : 1. 283, note. 
furtivus, -a, -um, adj. (fur- 

tum), stolen, by stealth. 
fuscus, -a, -um, adj., dark, 

swarthy, tawny. 

galea, -ae, f.. 1k lnul, mnrion. 
galerus, -i, /(/., leathcrn cap 

(ir hood. 
gaudeo, -ere, gavlsus sum, v. 

senii-dep. n. and a., rejoice, 

delight iu. 
gelidus, -a, -uin, adj. (gelu), 

cold, icy. 
geminus, a, -um, «(/;'. i^gigno), 

twiii, twofold; two; a pair. 
gemitus, -us, m, (gemo), 

groaning, learing. 
gemma, -ae,/., bud ; gem. 
gemo, -ere, -ui, -itum, r. n, 

arul «., groan ; bcwail. 
gener, -eri, m., son-in-law. 
genero, -fue, -avi, -atum, 

V. «., bcget. 


genitor, -oris, m. (gigno), 

father, sire. 
genius, -ii, ni., tutelary deity 

(//■ genius. 
gens, -tis, /., raco, clan, 

geuus, -eris, n. , race, stock. 
gero, -ere, gessi, gestuni, 

V. a., carry, -wear, wage. 
gestamen, -inls, n. (gcsto\ 

tliat which is carried : cf. 

1. 246, uote. 
gesto, -are, -avi, -atum, r. 

infcns., a. (gero), bear, 

gigno, -ere, genui, genituni, 

V. «., beget. 
glans, -dis, /, acorn ; leaden 

gleba, -ae, /., liunp of earth, 

gloria, -iae,/.,glory, renowii. 
gramen, -inis, n., grass ; 

gramineus, -a, -uni, adj. 

(gramen), grassy. 
gratia, -ae, /., favour ; love. 
gravidus, -a, -inn,rtf/;.(gravo\ 

hideii ; pregnant. 
graviter, adv. (gravis , 

inavily ; foully. 
gremium, -ii, n., hip, bosom. 
grex, -gis, m., iiock. 
guttur, -uris, n., throat. 
gyrus, -i, in., circle. 

habeo, -ere, -ui, -ituni, r. a.. 

luive, liold. 
habeua, -ae, /'. (liabeo), rein : 

habito, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

aiid )'., dwell, dwell in. 
haereo, -ere, haesi, haesum, 

r. n., cling to, stick. 
harena, -ae, /., sand. 

hasta, -ae, /., spear. 
haud, adv., not. 
herba, -ae, /., grass, lierb. 
heres, -edis, m., lieir. 
herilis, -e, adj. (herus), of a 

master or mistress. 
heu, interj., ahas ! 
heus, interj., Ho ! Ho, thero ! 
hibernus, -a, -iim, adj. 

(hiemps), wintry. 
hic, iiaec, hoc, gcn. hiTius ; 

dat. liiiic ; dem. pron., this ; 

he, she, it. 
hic, adi: of place, here ; 0/ 

time, here upon. 
hiemps, hiemis, /, winter ; 

stormy weatlier. 
hinc, «(?("., hence ; hence- 

forth ; next. 
homo, -inis, coniin., human 

being, man. 
honor, -oris, vi., houour, 

horrendus, -a, -um, adj. (hor- 

reo), dreadful, terrible. 
horrens, -tis, ixirt. (horreo), 

horresco, -ere, horrui, no 

snp., V. incept. n. and a. 

(Iiorrco), begin to shudder, 

horridus, -a, -um, adj. hnr- 

reo), standing on end, 

horrible, dread. 
hospitium, -ii, n. (hospes), 

hospitality, friendly plaee. 
hostis, -is, comm., foreigner, 

stranger, foe. 
hvic, «'?('., hither. 
humerus, -i, )(/., shoulder. 
humilis,-e, (ulj. (hunuis), low, 

lovv^ly ; shallow. 
hydra, -ae, /., water-snake, 



hymenaeus, -i, ?«., god of 
iiiarriagc, luarriage soiig, 

iaceo, -orc, -ul, -itiun, r. n., 

iacto, -firo, -avi, -atuni, r. 

frcq. a. (iaeio), thrcpw alxjut, 

toss, boast. 
iam, adv., already, at last. 
iampridem, a(h:, long ago, 

ianua, -ae, /., door, gate. 
ibi, a(h\, therc. 
ictus, -us, m. (ico), strokc. 
idem, eadem, idem, 2"'o«v 

ignis, -is, 1)1., firo. 
ignobilis, -o, adj. (in + n(j- 

I)ilis), inglorious. 
ign6ro,-aro, -avi, -atum, v. a., 

know not, am ignorant of. 
ignotus, -a, -uni, adj. (in + 

(g)nOtus), unknown. 
ilia, -ium, n.phir., groin. 
ilicet, «(/('. (I or irc + licot \ 

you nuiy go ; straightway. 
ille, -a, -ud, gcn. illius, dnt. 

illi, pers. pron., that, ho, 

she, it. 
imago, -inis,/. (imitor), copy, 

i»nage, likoness. 
imbuo, -orc, -i, -utum, r. «., 

wet; do for the first timo. 

Scfi 1. 543. 
immanis, -o, adj., hugo, mnn- 

strous ; lierce. 
immemor, -orls, adj. (in + 

m(>mor\ unmindful. 
immensus, -a, -um, adj. (in 

+ nioti<)r\ boundless, 

immobilis, -c, adj. (in + inu- 

hilis', immoveable, un- 


immotus, -a, -um, adj. ^in + 

moveo , unmovod. 
impello, -ere, -puli, -pulsuni, 

r. rt. (in + pello), drive on, 

push in, 
imperium, -ii, );. impero), 

impero, -are, -avi, -atiim, 

V. a. and n. witli dat. , coni- 

impexus, -a, -um. adj. (in + 

l)cxas), uncomlicd. 
impleo,-orc, -cvi, -ctum,r.a., 

lill up, lill full. 
implico, -are, -fivi or -11 i, 

-atnm o>"-itum, r. a., twino. 
imploro, -are, -iivi, -fitum, 

r. (/., cntreat. 
impouo, -cre, -posui, -posi- 

tum, r. «. (in + pOno),place 

improvisus, -a, -um, adj. 

(in + provTsus),unforosecn. 
impiibes, -is atid -cris, adj. 

(^in + pfibcs),1jcIow tho ago 

of manhood, boardless. 
imus, -a, -um, snprrl. adj., 

2)os. inferus; cowjk inferior, 

in, 2^rv2K wilh acc, into, to, 

against, for ; icith ahl., in, 

inaccessus, -a, -um, adj. (in 

+ acccssusXunapproached, 

inanis, -c, adj., cmpty, idle. 
iuausus, -a, -um, adj. (in + 

ausus\ nnt vcnturod, uu- 

incassum, adr. (in + cassum), 

in vain. 
incendo, -cre, -di, -sum. r. a. 

(in + c:indor)), sct firo to. 
inceptum, -i, n. (incipio), 

boginning, attcinpt. 


incingo, -eie, -xi, -ctuni, v.a. 

(in + cingo), gird on. 
incipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, 

V. a. and n. (in + capio , 

incliido, -ere, -si, -sum, r. a. 

(in + claudo), sliut iu ; 1. 

534, cut off. 
incumbo, -ere, -cubui, -cu- 

bitum, r. n., lean on. 
incijs, -udis, /. (incudo), 

inde, adv. of pkice, thence ; 

oftimc, thenceforth, there- 

indecoris, -e, adj. (in + de- 

corus), uubeconiing ; 1. 231 

non erimus in. = shall not 

indlco, -ere, -dixi, -dictum, 

V. a. (in + dlco), proclaim. 
indictus, -a, -um, adj. (in + 

dico\ untold, unsung. 
indignor, -ari, -atus sum, v. 

dep. n. and a. (in + dignus\ 

deem unworthy, be indig- 

indomitus,-a, -um, adj. (in + 

domo), untamed ; hardy. 
induo, -ere, -ui, -utum, r. «., 

put on, don. 
ineo, -ire, -Ivi and -ii, -itum, 

V. «., begin. 
inexcitus, -a, -um, adj. (in + 

excio), unexcited. 
infandus, -a, -um, adj. (in + 

faiidus, fari , unutterable ; 

infaustus, -a, -um, adj., un- 

fortunate, of ill omen. 
infectus, -a, -um, part. (iu- 

ficio), infected. .Ste 1. 341, 

infelix, -Icis, adj. (iu + felix), 


infernus, -a, -um, adj. i^infer), 

belonging to the lovver 

world, infei-nal. 
infero, -ferre, intuli, illatum, 

V. «. (in + fero), bring on ; 

throw in. 
infestus, -a, -um, adj., hostile. 
infractus, -a, -um, part. (in- 

fringoi, injured. 
ingemino, -are, -fivi, -atum, 

V. a. (in + gemino), re- 

ingens,-tis, adj. (in + genus), 

huge, mighty. 
ingratus, -a, -um, adj. (in + 

gratus),unpleasing; thank- 

ingredior, -i, -gressus sum, 

V. dep. a. and n. (in + gradior) 

inhio, -are, -avi, -fitum, r. n., 

iniquus, -a, -um, adj. (in + 

aequus), unfair; I. 227, 

too hot. 
inlido, -ere, -si, -sum, v. a. 

(iu + laedo), dash upon. 
inlustris, -e, adj. ^inlustro), 

lighted up, famous. 
innecto, -ere, -xui, -xum, 

V. «. (in + necto), tie, bind 

together ; fiisten round. 
innocuus, -a, -um, adj. (in + 

noceo), harmless. 
inquam, v. defect, ^rd pers., 

inquit, say. 
insania, -ae, /. (in + siinus), 

insanus, -a, -um, adj. (in + 

sanus), mad. 
inscius, -a, -um, adj. (in + 

scio\ ignorant, unwitting. 
insequor, -qui, -secutus sum, 

V. dep.a. and n. (in + sequor), 

follow, pursue. 



iusidiae, -aruin,/. phir., am- 

bush ; snarcs. 
insignio, -Ire, -Ivi or -ii, 

-itum, r. n. (in.signis), 

mark, distinguish. 
insignis,-G,arf/. (in + signurn), 

(listinguished ; insigne, us 

noHH, = devico. 
insono, -are, -ui, -ituni, v. ii. 

(in+sono\ o:-ho ; 1. 451, 

niake tu sound. 
inspiro,-are, -avi, -atuni, r. a. 

(in + spTro , blow upoa ; 

breatho iiito. 
instar, indccl. n., likeness ; 

loith gen., liko ; worth. 
instauro, -are, -avi, -atuni, 

r. rt. (^sto 1, eroot ; renow. 
insteruo, -orc, -stravi, -atum, 

V. a. (in + sterno), cover 

instituo, -oro, -i, -utum, r. a. 

i,in + statuo), plant, fix, 

insuito, -are, -avi, -atum, r. 
/irq. n. aud a. (insilio), loap 

upon ; troad. 
intactus, -a, -uni, adj., un- 

intendo, -ere, -di, -sum or 

-tum, V. a. (in + tondo), 

stretchout ; strain. Inten- 

tus, as adj., eager, keen on. 
inter, piij). xoith acc, among, 

interea, adv., in tlio moan- 

interluo, -ere, no perf. ov sup., 

V. a. (inter + luo), flow 


V. a. (intor + nocto), bind 

intexo, -ere, -ui. -toxtum, 

r. a. (in + texo), inwoavo. 

intimus, -a, -um, siqKrl. adj. 

(intra), inmost. 
intono, -aro, -ui, no sup., v. n., 

intra, adv. uud prep. loith acc., 

intro, -are, -avi, -iituin, v.a., 

iutus, adv., wilhin. 
inveho, -oro, -xi. -otum, r. a. 

i^in + voho), o.:rry into. 
invenio, -Iro, -voni,-vontum, 

r. a. (in + vcnio), find. 
invisus, -a, -um, adj., luitcd. 
invoco, -iire, -avi, -atum, r. «. 

(in + voco), call upon, in- 

involvo,-ore, -vi, -utum, r. a. 

(in + volvo\ roll upon, 

io, inlcrj., ho I quick I 
ipse, -a, -um, pron., solf; 

ira, -ae, /, angor. 
irrideo, -Gre, -risi, -risum, 

V. n. and a. (in + rideo), 

laugh at, mock. 
is, ea, id, dem. i>'on., that, 

lie, she, it. 
ita, adv., so. 
iter, itinoris, n., road, jour- 

iterum, fl(?('., a socond timo, 

iuba, -ae, ./'., mano, crost. 
iubeo, -oro, iussi, iussuni, 

V. «., command. 
iugalis, -e, adj. iiuguni), 

voked together ; 1. 280, a 

iugum, -i, //. iuiiui" , ynko. 
iungo, -ori', -xi, -otum, r. a,, 

iuro, -aro, -avi, -atum, v. «., 

swoar, swoar by. 


ius, ifiris, n., right ; pltir., 

iussum, -i. n. (iubco), com- 

iustus, -a, -um, adj., upright, 

iuvenis, -is, ni. and /., (tdj.. 

yiHing ; siibst., youth. 
iuventa, -ae, /., youth. 
iuventus, -utis, /., youth ; 

coUi-ctice noiin, the young 

iuvo, -are, iuvi, iutum, v. «., 

lielp, aiil ; impersonal, it de- 

iuxta, adv. and prep. icith acc. 

(iungo -I- sto), near, beside, 

close to. 

labor, -Oris, m., toil, labour ; 

labor, -i, lapsus sum, v. dep. 

ti., fall, slip, glide. 
lacertus, -i, »>«., upper arm. 
lacesso, -ere, -Ivi or-ii, -itum, 

r. «., provoke, strike. 
lacrimabilis, -e, adj. (la- 

crima), tearful, mournful. 
lacrimo, -fire, -avi, -atum, 

V. n. (lacrima), weep. 
lacus, -us, m., hake. 
laado, -ere, -si, -sum, v. «., 

injure, hurt. 
laetus, -a, -um, adj., gh^d ; 

laevus, -a, -um, adj., on tl>e 

left hand ; hieva (sc. 

manus), left hand. 
lampas, -adis,/. , light,torch. 
laniger, -ei-a, -erum, adj. 

(lana + gero), woolh'. 
late, adv., far and wide. 
lateo, -ere, -ui, -itum, r. n., 

lurk, lie hid. 
latex, icis, m., water. 

latro, -are, -avi, -atum, v. n., 

bark, roar. 
latus, -eris, n., side. 
laurus,-i and -us,/., baj'-tree, 

laus, -dis, /., praise, glory. 
lavo, -are, lavi, lavatum or 

lautum, v. «., wash. 
legio, -r.nis, /. (lego), legion, 

body of troops. 
lentus, -a, -um, adj., pliant, 

tough ; motionless. See 

1. 28, note. 
leo, -Onis, m., lion. 
letum, -i, n., death. 
levis, -e, adj., light. 
levis, -e, adj., smooth, 

levo, -are, -avi, -atum, r. «., 

make light, ease, free. 
lex, legis, /., law. 
liber, -era, -erum, adj., free. 
libo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. «., 

pour out as an offering ; 

pour out. 
libum, -i. 71., cake. 
licentius,co?H^;.rtrfr. ,too freely. 
licet, -ere, -uit or licitum est, 

v. impers , it is allowed, it 

is lawful. 
limen, -inis, 7i., threshold. 
linquo, -ere, llqui, no sup., 

V. a., leave. 
liquidus, -a, -um, adj., 

liquid, clear. 
litus, -oris, n., shore. 
lituus, -i, m., bugle ; augur's 

livens, -tis, jiar^. (llveo), 

bluish, lead-coloured. 
loco, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

(locus), place. 
locus, -i, m., plur. loci a)id 

loca, place, district. 
longaevus, -a, -um, adj. 


(longus + aovuni), of groat 

age, very old. 
longe, ailc., afar. 
longus, -a, -uni, adj., long, 

loquor, -qui, -cutus suni, 

V. dip. 71. and a., speak,say. 
lorica, -ao,/. lOruni ,cuii-ass, 

lubricus, -a, -uni, (ulj., slip- 

lucidus, -a, -uni, adj. \lux ^ 

hriglit, shining. 
luctificus, -a, -uni, adj. (luc- 

tus + facio), grief-causing. 
luctor, -ari, -fitus sum, v. dep. 

n., struggle. 
lCicus, -i, m. (lucco), grove. 
ludo, -ere, -si, -suni, v. a. 

aiul 11., play ; mock. 
ludus, -i, m., game, sport. 
lues, -is, /., decay, plague; 

Kimen, -inis, «., light; eye. 
luua, -ae,/. {contr./rom lucna, 

luceo), moon. 
lupus, -i, m., wolf. 
lustro, -firo, -avi, -fitum, r. a. 

i^lustrum), purify by pro- 

pitiatory oilbrings, go 

round, travorse, scan. 
liiteus, -a, -um, adj., yellow. 
lux, lucis, /., light. 
lyraphatus, -a, -um, 2>"''t- 

(lymiiho), frenzied. 

macto, -ru'o, -avi, -atum, r. «., 

ofter in .sacrifice. 
magis, coi»}}. adv., more. 
magnus, -a, -um, udj. ; conip. 

mfiior ; superl. ma.ximus. 

mala, -ao, /. (mando), jaw. 
malifer, -era, -erum, adj. 

(maluni + fcro),apple-bear- 

malum, -i, n., evil, plague. 
mandatuni, -i, n. (mando), 

«irdor, cliargo. 
mando, -oro, -di, -sum, r. «., 

chow, dovour, champ. 
maneo, -Gre, mansi, -sum, 

V. n. and a., remain, await. 
manus, -us, /., hand, l>and. 
mare, -is, n., sea. 
marinus, -a, -um, adj. 

' niai'o\ of tho soa. 
raarmor, -oris, n., marble ; 

white soa. 
mater, -tris,/, mothor, dam. 
maternus, -a, -um, adj. ! ina- 

tor\ of a mothor. 
maturus, -a, -um, udj., ripe. 
mecum (me + cum), with 

medicina, -ac, /. (medeor), 

hoaling, modicine. 
medicor, -ari, -atus sum, 

r. dep. a. (medicus), heal, 

medius, -a, -um, adj., middle ; 

veut. modium «s noun, the 

membrum, -i, n., liml). 
memet (ine + met), strong 

/(jrni. o/mO. 
memini, -isso, r. de/vct, a. 

(mens), remember. 
memoro, -are, -avi, -atum, 

r. a. (memor), call to mind ; 

mens, -tis, /., mind. 
mensa, -ae, /., table. 
mepMtis, -is, /., a postilent 

exhalation from the 

ground ; brcath. 
merces, -odis. /. (mereor), 

roward, prico. 
mereor, -Cri, -itus sum, r. 


(hp. ((., also mereo, -Grc, -ui, 

-itum, deserve. 
metus, -iis. VI., fear. 
meus, -a, -um, i)Ois. adj., my. 
mico, -fire, -ui, v. n., quiver, 

mille, 9(iOH. ailj. inded., a 

tliiiusand ; millia, as sid/st. 

icilh (jcn.. thousands. 
ministerium, -ii, n. (mini- 

ster), service. 
minusjcow^j. udv. (minor), less. 
>nirabilis, -e, adj. (mlrus), 

miror, -ari, -atussum,t). dep. 

n. and a. ; wonder, wonder 

mirus, -a, -um, adj., won- 

mi.sceo, -ere, -cui, -stum or 

-xtum, V. a., mingle. 
miser, -a, -um, adj. ; coinp. 

miserior ; superL miser- 

rinms, wretched. 
miseret, -ere, -uit, -eritum 

and -ertum, v, impers. a. with 

(jen. and acc, pities. 
missus, -us, m. (mitto), send- 

mitto, -ere, mlsi, missum, 

r. a., .send. 
modo, adr., only, lately. 
modus, -i, m., measure, man- 

ner ; strain. 
moenia, -ium, H.p/. (munio), 

fortifications, walls. 
moles, -is, /., mass, trouble. 
molior, -iri, -Itus aum, r. dep. 

a. moles), toil, effect with 

moUis, -e, adj., soft. 
mollius, comp. adv, (mollis), 

more softly. 
moneo, -ere, -ui, -itum, v. a., 

warn, advise, inspire. 

monile, -is, n., neckhice, col- 

hir ; poitrels. 
monitus, -us, m. (moneo), 

warning, advice. 
mons, -tis, m., inountain. 
monstro, -are, -fivi, -atum, 

r. rt., shoNV, point. 
monstrum, -i, n. (moneo), 

omen, jjortent, monster. 
montosus, -a, -um, adj. 

(mons), mountainous. 
mora, -ae, /., delay. 
morior, mori, mortuus sum, 

r. dt-p. n., die. 
moror, -ari, -atus sum, v. dep. 

n. and «., dehiy, give 

thought to. 
morsus, -us, m. ^mordeo), 

mortalis, -e, adj. (mors), 

subject to death, mortal. 
mos, moris, m., manner, 

moveo, -ere, mOvi, mOtum, 

V. a., movc. 
mucro, -onis, m., point, 

mulceo, -6ro, -si, -sum, v. «., 

stroke, sootlie ; hill. 
mulier, -eris,/., woman. 
multus, -a, -um, adj., comp. 

phis ; sn2)ei-l. plurimus, 

much, many. 
miinus, -eris, n., ofRce, gift. 
miirus, -i, m., wall. 
miituus, -a, -um, adj,, mu- 

tual, h 66 per mutua, one 

to another. 
myrtus, -i and -us./, myrtle ; 

shaft of myrtle. 

nam, namque, conj., for. 
nanciscor, -i, nactus and 

nanctus sum, v, dep, a,, 

get, acquire. 


naris, -is, /., jiostril ; i)?i(r. 

nascor, -i, natus suni, r. ihp. 

n., am born. 
nata, -ao,/., daughtcr. 
natus, -i, m., son. 
nauta,-aft, m. Cnavita"). sailor. 
iie,a(h., not, in proliibitions; 

co)ij. uith suhj., lcst. 
ne, iiitcryogatire cnid enclitic 

particle si{(fi.(ed to otlicr iiords. 
nec, conj., nor, and not. 
necdum, adr. (nec + dum). 

aiul not yet. 
necto, -orc, -xui, -xinn, r.a., 

))ind, tie. 
nefas, n. indect., contrary to 

divine law, sin, erime ; 

1- 73i cxclaination, horror ! 
nego, -are, -avi, -utum, r. a. 

(ne + aio), deny. 
neraus, -oi-is, n., grovc. 
nepos, -otis, »n., grandson, 

neque. See nec. 
nequeo, -ire, -ivi or-ii, -itum, 

r. n. (ne + queo), am unaJ)U>. 
nequiquam, adv., in vain, 

nescio, -Irc, -ivi or -ii, 

-scltum, r. a, (ne + scio), 

know not. 
neu or neve, conj., and that 

not, and lest. 
ni = nisi, conj., tinless. 
niger, -gra, -grum, adj., comp. 

nigrior ; snperl. nigerri- 

mus ; bl.ack. 
nimbus, -i, m., stonn-eloud; 

cloud of men. 
nitidus, -a, -um, adj. (nitco), 

shining, sleek. 
nivalis, -e, adj. (^iiix\ snowy. 
uiveus, -a, -um, adj. (nix), 

snowy, snow-wliite. 

nobilis, -c, adj., noblc. 
noceo, -ero, -ui, -itum, r. n. 

icith diiL, hurt. 
nocturnus, a, -mu, adj. 

(u(>\}, of tlie ni.nlit. 
nodus, -i, m., knot. 
nomen, -inis >(. [forgnomen, 

(g) nosco], name. 
non, adr., not. 
nos, gen. nostri or nostrum. 

pcrs. jn^on. plur. o/cgo ; we. 
noster, -ra, -rum, j)oss. adj. 

(nds), our. 
nothus,-a, -\xm,adj., bastard, 

notus, -a, -um, adj. ((g)nosco) 

known, famous. 
noverca, -ae,/., step-mother. 
novo, -are, -avi, -atum, r. a., 

make new, renew. 
novus, -a, -um, adj., new, 

nox, noctis,/., night. 
noxius, -a, -um, adj. (noceo), 

luirmful, injurious. 
niibes, -is, /, cloud. 
nubigena, -ae, m. (nubgs + 

gigno), cloud-born. 
niibila, -orum,9j.j/?io-.(nubC's), 

niibilis, -c, adj. (niibo), fit 

for marriage. 
niidus, -a, -um, adj., bare, 

nuUus, -a, -um, gen. nuUius ; 

dat. nulli, adj. (ne + ullus), 

no, not any. 
num, interrogatire particle ex- 

pccting a negatire answer. 
niimen, -inis, n. (nuo), nod, 

will of the gods, dcity. 
numerus, -i, m., number. 
nunc, adr., now. 
nuntius, -ii, ?))., nicsscnger ; 



nutrio, -Ire, -Ivi or -ii, -itum, 

r. ".. nourifjli. 
nutrix, -Icis,/., nurse. 
nvitus, -us, 111. (nuo), nod, 

nympha, -ae, /., nynipli. 

O, interj., Oh ! 

ob, j^rej). loith acc, on account 

of ; to defend. 
obicio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum, 

V. a. f'ob -I- iacio), throw 

Lefore, oppose. 
obscenus, -a, -um, ailj. (ob + 

cacnum'', ill-omoned. 
obscurus, -a, -um, adj., dark, 

obsideo, -ere, -sedi, -sessuni, 

V. a. (ob + sedeo), beset, be- 

obsido, -ere, no perf. or sitp. 

(ob + sido), beset. 
obsitus, -a, -um, part. (ob- 

sero , overgrown, covered. 
obsto, -are, -stiti, -statum, 

r. /'. (ob + sto), stand over ; 

resist, forbid. 
obtestor, -ari, -atus sum, 

V. (hp. a., call to witness. 
obtutus, -us, m, (ob(ueor), 

look, gaze. 
obustus, -a, -um, part. (ob- 

uro , burned or hardentd 

in fire. 
occido, -ere, -cidi, -casum, 

r.n. (ob + cado),fall, peri>.h. 
occumbo, -ere. -cubui, -cubi- 

tum, r. n., fall down ; sink. 
occupo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a, 

(ob + capio)i, seize, take. 
oceanus, -i, m., ocean. 
ocrea, -ae,/, greave. 
oculus, -i, m., eje. 
odi, -isse, no perf. or svp., r. 

defecf. a , hate. 

odium, -ii, n., hatred. 
odor, -oris, m., smell, scent. 
odoratus, -a, -um, «rf/(odor), 

ofifero, -ferre.obtuli, oblatum, 

V. a. (ob + fero), oflFer. 
olim, adv. (olle = ille + im, 

locative ending^, formerly, at 

times, some day. 
oliva, -ae,/., olive-tree. 
olivifer, -era, -erum, adj. 

(oliva + fero), olive-bear- 

olli, 1. 458 = illi, daf. sinr/. ; 

'• 505 = 'J'i> '"• /'?'"'• 
omen, -inis, n., ibreboding, 

omen, token. 
omnipotens, -tis, adj. (omnis 

+ iws^um), almighty. 
omnis, -e, adj., all, every. 
opacus, -a, -um, adj., shady, 

opera, -ae, /., work. 
oppono, -ere, -posui, -posi- 

tum, V. a. (ob + pono\ op- 

pose to, put in the way. 
opto, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a., 

clioose, desire. 
opulentia, -ae, /. (opulens), 

opus, -eris, n., work. 
ora, -ae, /., coast, district. 
oraculum, i, n , oracle. 
orator, Oris, m. (oro), spokes- 

orbis, -is, m., circle, plate. 
ordior, -Iri, orsus sum, v. 

dep. n. and a., begin ; orsa 

(as noun) — words ; 1. 435. 
ordo, -inis, )«. , order, row. 
crgia, -orum, n. pliir., festiA-al 

in honour of Bacchu.s, 

origo, -inis,/. (orior), origin, 



orior, -Iri, ortus sum, r. dcji. 

n., arise, spring from. 
ornatus,-us, »»i. (orno"), adorn- 

orno, -are, -avi, -atum, r. a., 

adorn, equip. 
oro, -are, -avi, -atum, r. «., 

pray, besecch. 
6s, Oris, n., mouth, face. 
6s, ossis, 11., bone. 
ostendo, -cre, -di, -suni (inil 

-tum, V. a. (ob + tendo ■, 

stretch before, display, 

ostento, -are, -avi, -fitum, r. 

intens. a. (ostendo), display. 
ostrum, -i, )(., blood of the 

sea-snail, purple. 
ovis, -i.s, /., shccp. 

palam, adv. and jmp. with al>!., 

palma, -ae, /., i>ahu-branch 

or wi'catli as tokcn of vic- 

tory ; ])a]m of hand. 
paliis, -udi.s, /, marsh, 

parapineus, -a, -um, ailj. 

(pampinus), wraj^pcd 

round with vine-leaves. 
pando, -ere, -di, -nsum a)id 

-ssum, r. a., sj^rcad, oj^en. 
par, -is adj., like, equal ; 

parco, -cre, pi^pcrci, ])arsum, 

V. 71. icitk dat., sparc. 
parens, -tis, //;. andf. (pario), 

pareo, -crc, -ui, -itum, ?•. /(. 

witli dat., obey. 
pario, -ere, peperi, partum, 

r. a., bring fortli, i^rocurc, 

pariter, adv. (par), equally. 

paro, -are, -avi, atum, c. «., 

pars, -tis, /., part, sharc ; 

partus, -us, m. (pario), off- 

parvus, -a, -um, adj. ; comp. 

nainor ; stijKrl. minimus; 

pasco, -ere, pavi, pastum, 

V. a., pasture, feed. 
passus, -us, VI., pace, step. 
pastor,-Oris, w. (pasco), shep- 

pastoralis, -c, adj. (pastor), 

of a sliepherd. 
pastus, -us, ni. (pasco), pas- 

pateo, -cre, -ui, no siqh, v. n., 

ani o])cn. 
pater, -ris, ?;/., fathcr. 
patera, ac, /. (pateo), broad 

iiat disli ; cup. 
paternus,-a, -um, adj. [iiAter), 

of a fathcr. 
patiens, -ntis, adj., j^atient. 
patior, -i, passus sum, r. dcp. 

a., sulfer, t)ear. 
patria, -ac,/. (sc. tcrrai,fat]ier- 

patrius, -a, -um, adj. (pater), 

of a fatlicr, ancestral, here- 

patulus, -a, -uin, adj. (patco), 

standing open, widc, llat. 
paulatim, adv., by degrees, 

pavidus,-a, -uui,«rf;. (paveo), 

trombling, tcrrificd. 
pavor, -Oris, vi., fear, tcrror. 
pax, pacis, /., peace. 
pecten, -inis, »»., comb ; rced 

or slcy of a loom. 
pecto, crc, -xuui, v. a., 



pecus, -oris, n., cattle, a 

pedes, -itis, m. (pes), one on 

foot ; Ibot-soldier. 
pelagus, -i, n., sea. 
pellis, -is, ./'., skin, liide. 
pello, -ere, pepiili, pulsum, 

r. «., drive jnvay. 
pelta, -ac, /. , small, light 


housohold gods. 
pendeo, -ere, pependi, no 

si'}'., V. n., hang. 
pendo, -ere, jiependi, ])on- 

suni, r. «., liang, pay. 
penetrale, -is, n., gencrallij 

2)h(r. ponotro), inner chani- 

l)ei-, shrine. 
penetro, -are, -avi, -atum, 

V. a., penetrate, enter, 

penitus, adr., inwardly, far 

within, uttorly. 
peniiria, -ao, /., waut ; huu- 

per, 2^i'<^P- u-'dh acc, through, 

on account of. 
percipio, -cre, -copi, -ceptum, 

r. rt. (por + capio\ porcoivc ; 

receive thoroughly. 
percurro, -ere, -curri, -cur- 

siuu, v.a. (per-hcurro),ruu 

percutio, -ere, -cussi, -cus- 

sum, V. a. (per + quatio), 

perdo, -ero, -didi, -ditum, 

V. «. (per + do), destroy, 

pererro, -ilre, -iivi, -atunci, 

V. «. (per-i-erro), wander 

perflcio, -ere, -feci, -fectuni 

(por -I- facio", r. a., finish, 

perfidus, -a, -um, adj. (per + 

fides), faithless, falsc. 
perfundo, -ere, -fudi, -fusum, 

r. a. (per + fundo), iiour 

over, batho. 
pericuium and periclum, -i, 

«., dangor. 
perlabor, -i, -lapsus sum, v. 

de^i. a. (per + labor), glide 

permisceo, -ere, -cui, -xtum 

or -stum, r. a. (per + mis- 

ceo), mix, mingle ; confuse. 
pero, -Onis, ni., boot of raw 

perpetuus, -a, -\\m,adj., con- 

pertempto, -are, -avi, -atum, 

r. rt. (i)or + tento), pervadc, 

perverto, -ero, -i, -suni, r. «., 

(]or + verto), twist, jior- 

vcrt ; 1. 584. 
pes, ijodis, wi., foot. 
pestifer, -a, -um, adj. (jjestis 

+ fcro", i)laguc-bringing. 
pestis, -is, ./!, plaguc. 
peto, -ere, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 

V. «., seek, aim at. 
pharetra, -ae, /., quivor. 
piget, -ero, -uit and pigitum 

est, r. iin^Kr.';. icith acc. and 

gen., loathcs. 
pilum, -i, n., heavy javelin. 
pingo, -ere, -xi, -ctum, v. «., 

paint, embroider. 
pinguis, -e, adj., fat ; rich. 
pinna,-ae./. (penna), feather ; 

1. 159, pinnacle or battle- 

pinus, -us,/., pine-tree. 
pius, -a, -um, adj., dutiful, 


N 2 


placabilis, -e, adj. (placo^ 

t-asy to lic appeased, mild, 

placidus, -a, -iui), arlj. (pla- 

ceo), gentle, peaceful. 
plaga, -ae, /, blow, stroke. 
plaga, -ae, /., region, zone. 
planta, -ae, /., sole of the 

plenus, -a, -uni. ad/. (pleo:, 

plumbum, -i, n., leail. 
plus, comj). f/niultus. 
poena, -ae,/ , ))enalty. 
poUuo, -ere, -ui, -utum, r.a., 

soil, deliie. 
pomum, -i, n., apple ; fruit. 
pono, -ere, posui, positum, 

V. «., put ; ofwtnds, fall. 
pontus, -i, m., sea. 
populus, -i, m., people, 
porta, -ae, / , gate. 
portendo, -ere, -i, -tum, v.a., 

jioint out, foretell. 
portentum, -i, n., portont, 

portus, -Ci.'i, ;/(., iiarliuur, 

posco, -ere, poiiosci, iw sup., 

V. «., demand. 
possum, posse, potui, wy sup., 

V, n. (potis + sum), can, am 

Vost, 2irt'p, with acc, after. 
posterus, -a, -um, adj. (post), 

coDip. posterior ; suptrl. 

jiostremus ; coming after, 

next, last. 
postis, -is, 111., doorpost, 

postquam,oj)y.(l*obt + <piam), 

after tliat, after, wlien. 
potens, -tis, adj. tpossum), 

powerful, able. See I. 541, 


potestas, -iltis, / possum), 

power, opportunity. 
praeceps,-cipitis,o'//. (prae + 

caput I, lieadlong. 
praecipue, adv. praecipuus), 

especialiy, chieHy. 
praecordia, -orum, n. pliir. 

(prae -i- cor), midrifi', heart. 
praeda, -ae, /. ( fvr prae- 

Iienda ; i)rehcndo\ booty, 

praedo, -onis, ni., robber ; 

praefero, -ferre, -( ul i ,-latiim, 

r. rt. ^prae + fero), bear be- 

foie ; offev. 
praefigo, -ere, -xi. -xum, r. a. 

(prae+figo), tiK before or 

\n froiit. 
praegnaus, -ntis, adj., preg- 

praesepe, -is, n. (praesepio), 

stall, cage. 
praesideo, -ere, -sedi, -ses- 

sum, ('. (i. (prae+ sedeo), 

presidc over. 

surpassing ; excellent. 
praeter, pnp. icith acc, be- 

praeterea,a(ir. (praeter + ea), 

beyond, besides. 
praeuro, -ere, -ussi, -ustum, 

c. rt. (prae + uro), burn at 

the tip. 
praevehor, -i, -vectus siim, 

('. dci>. n. i^prae + veho^, ride 

praeverto, -ere, -i, -suin, v. a. 

(prae + \erto', outslrip. 
pratum, -i, n., tield. 
precem, no noin. or ye»., /., 

precor, -ar!, -atus sum, v. 

dep. «., pray. 



premo, -ere, pressi, pressum, 

r. «., press, clieck, con- 

primaevus, -a, -um, adj. 
{ primus + aevum), young, 

primus, -a, -nm, s^iperl. adj. ; 

2)os. prae ; comp. iirior ; 

first ; cum primum, so 

soon as. 
principium,-ii,»!. (princeps); 

prior, -us, comp. adj. {see pri- 

mus), former. 
priscus, -a, -um, adj., old, 

pTO, 2)i''p- "'''/' ahl., for, in- 

stead of, on Ijehalf of. 
procella, -ae. /. (procello)^ 

storm, hurricane. 
procul, adv., at a distance, 

proalium, -il, n., battle. 
proficiscor, -i, profectus sum, 

r. dep. n., start. 
profugus, -a, -um, adj. (pro- 

fugio), fugitive, exile. 
profundus, -a, -um, adj., 

progenies, -ei, /. (progigno), 

prohibeo, -ere, -ui, -itum. 

r. a. (pro+ liabeo), check, 

hinder, forbid. 
proles, -is, /. pro + alo), oflf- 

pronuba, -ae,/. (pro + nubo\ 

propero, -are, -avi, -atum, 

V. a. aiid n., hasten, am 

proprius, -a, -um, adj., one's 

own, lasting. 
prora, -ae, /., prow. 
prorumpo, -ere, -rfipi, -ru- 

ptum, r. a. (pro + rumpo), 

break fortli. 
prospecto, -fire, -avi, -atum, 

r. intens. a. (prospicio), 

gaze at. 
prospicio, -ere, -spexi, -ctum, 

r. a. and n. (pro + specio), 

see before, descry. 
prosum, -desse, -fui, v. n. 

(pro + sum), am of use to, 

protinus, adr. (pro + tenus), 

right on, forthwith. 
proximus, -a, -um, siiperl. 

adj, (prope), nearest. next. 
piibes, -is,/., youtli. 
puer, -i, m., boy. 
pugna, -ae, /., figlit. 
pugno,-are, -avi, -atum, r. a.. 

pulcher, -ra, -rum, adj.. beau- 

puUulo, -are, -avi, -fitum, 

r. ?(., sprout with. 
pulsus, -fis, m. (pello), beat- 

ing, tramp. 
pulverulentus, -a, -um, adj. 

ipulvis), dusty. 
pulvis, -eris, m., dust. 
purpura, -ae, /., purple. 
piirus, -a, -um, adj., pure, 

puto, -are, -avi, -atum, r. «., 


qua, adv., by which way, 

quadra, -ae,/., square, table; 

1. 115, 0/ the pieces 0/ Iread 

used as plates. 
quadrifidus, -a, -um, adj. 

'quattuor + findo), split 

into four parts. 
quadrupes, -dis, adj. (quat- 

tuor+pes), four-footfcd. 


quaero, -eic, -sivi, -.sltiini, 

r. a., seek, ask, g«^t. 
qualis, -o, (ulj., of ^vhat Snrt 

or kind. 
quara, adr., as. 
quamvis, co»j. aiul aclv. (quam 

+ vis), as you will, how- 

ovor ; althougii. 
quandoquidem, (clv., sinoo 

quantus, -n, -um, adj., ]u>w 

groat, as groat as. 
quare, adr. (qua + rc:), whero- 

fore, wliy. 
quasso, -fire, -avi, -atuni, 

V. infens. a. (quatio), shake. 

V. a., sliako. 
quattuor, num. adj. indecJ., 

-que, cncVUic conj., and. 
quercus, -us, /., oak. 
questus, -iis, m. (queror), 

qui, quae, quod, inhrr. adj., 

wliat ? which ? 
quid, interr. (idc, why? 
quies, -otis, /., rest, sleop. 
quiesco, -ore, -ovi, -otum, 

r. n. (quies), become quiet, 

quin, conj. (qui + ne), that 

not ; nay more. 
quini, -ae, -a, distrih. nnm. 

adj. (quinque\ five eacli ; 

live, 1. 538. 
quinque, mtin. adj. indeclin., 

quis, (quis), quid, interr. 

2)ron., wlio? what ? 
quis, qua, quid, indcf. jirini., 

any ono, anything. 
quisquam, quaequam, quic- 

cinam, indcj. 2iriin, , any ono, 


quisque, quaeque, quodque, 

and quidque, indif. ]iron., 

quo, adv., lo tlio eiul tliat, 

quod, conj., because. 
quondam, adr., at one lime, 

formorly, sometinies. 
quoque, adv., also. 

rabidus, -a, -um, adj. (rabies), 

raving, frenzied. 
rabies, -Oi, /. (rabio), rage, 

radius, -i, m., boam. 
rado, -ere, -si, -siun, r. «., 

serape, skirt. 
ramus, -i, m., bough, 1)raneh. 
rapidus, -a, -um, adj. (rapio), 

luirrying, swift. 
rapio, -ere, -ui, raptum, r. a., 

seize, sweep on. 
rastrum, -i, n., rake, mattock. 
ratis, -is, /., ship. 
raucus, -a, -um, adj., honrse. 
recans, -tis, adj., frosh, new. 
recidivus, -a, -um, adj. (ro- 


recipio, -ere, -copi, -ceptum, 

r. a. (re + capio), roceive, 

got back. 
reclCido, -ere, -si, -sum, r. a. 

(re + claudo), (■i)on, unvoil. 
recondo, -ere, -didi, -ditum, 

r. a. (re + condo), hido. 
recoquo, -ore,-xi, -ctum, r. a., 

lioil ngain, forge again. 
recurro, -ere, -curri, no snp. 

(re + curro^i, run or liasten 

recurvus, -a, -um, (ittj., bent, 

crookod, curvod i)ack. 
reciJso,-aro, -rivi, -atum, r,a. 


(rc + causa), rofuse, fight 

reddo, -oro, -didi, -ditum, 

r. a. (ro + do\ givo back, 

redeo, -iro, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 

V. n. (re+eo\ go back, re- 

refero, -ferre, rettuli, rela- 

tum, V. a. (re + fero), bear 

baek, claim, describe. 
refugio, -ero, -fCigi, v. n. and 

a. (ro + fugio), tty back ; 

slirink from. 
refundo, -ero, -fiuli, -fusum, 

V. a. (re + fundo). pour 

back, fling back. 
regalis, -e, adj. (rex), royal. 
regia, -ae, ./'. (regius, sc. do- 

mus), palace. 
regina, -ae, /. (rogo), queen. 
regio, -onis, /. (rego), diree- 

tion, quarter, region. 
regius, -a, -um, adj. (rex), 

regnator, -oris, in. (rogno), 

rulor, sovereign. 
regnura, -i, n. i,rex\ king- 

dom, kingsliip. 
rego, -ere. rexi, rectum, r. «., 

guido, rule, direct. 
relego, -are, -avi, -attmi, v. «., 

religio, -onis, /., reverence, 

roligion ; scruplo. 
religo, -fire, -avi, -fitum, r. «., 

bind Ijack, moor. 
reliuquo, -ero, -llqui, -lic- 

tum, r. n. (re + linquo\ 

leave behind. 
reliquiae, -arum,/. jd- (relin- 

quo), leavings. 
remordeo,-ore, noiperf., -sum, 

r. a. (re + mordeo), bite 

again, gnaw. 

reor, reri, ratus sum, r. n., 

think, deem. 
repello, -ere, roppuli, re- 

pulsum, V. a. (re + i)elIo), 

drive back or away ; east 

repente, adi\, suddenly. 
reperio, -Ire, i-epperi, repor- 

tum, r. «. (re + pario), find, 

meet ■\vith, discover. 
repertor, -Oris, m. (reperio), 

repeto, -cre, -Ivi or-ii, -Itum, 

r. rt. (re + peto), seek again, 

go back to, remember. 
repleo, -ere, -6vi,-etum,r. «., 

(ro + pleo), fiU again or \ip. 
repono, -ere, -sui, -situm, 

V. a. (re + pOno), place back. 

put away. 
reporto, -are, -avi, -atum, 

r. a. (re + i^orto), carry 

back, bring back news. 
reposco, -ere, no perf. or sup., 

r. a. (re + posco), claim as 

ono's due. 
requiro, -ere, c^ulslvi, -sltum, 

r. a. (re + quaero), seek 

again, ask, demand. 
res, rei,/., thing, fact, affair. 
resero, -aro, -iivi, -atum, r. a. 

(re + sero), unlock, unbolt, 

reses, -idis, ailj. (resideo), 

inactive, sluggish. 
resideo, -ere, -sodi, -sessuni, 

r. n. (re + sedeo), sit back, 

drop ofivind. 
resisto, -ere, -stiti, no sup., 

V. n. (re + sisto), stand 

back, stand firm. 
resperg-o, -ere, -si, -sum, r. a. 

(re + spargo), sprinkle. 
respicio, -ere, -spexi, -spec- 

tum, r. a. and n. (re + 



s])c(;io\ ludk back, luok 

l.ack at. 
resouo, -aro, -avi, -atiiin, r. u. 

anl n. (ro -h .sono), oclio, 

responsum, -i, n. (respon- 

dio), aiiswor. 
resto, -are, -stiti, r. n. (re-(- 

st(i\ stop l)ohin(l, r( main. 
retraoto, -are, -avi, -atuin, 

V. «., handle again. 
revoco, -are, -fivi, -atum, r. «. 

(re-hvoco), call baek. 
rex, regis, ?»., king. 
rigo, -are, -avi, -atum, r. a., 

\\x'i, ■wator. 
rimor, -ari, -atus sum, r. (hp. 

a. and n. (rima), feel or 

grope for. 
ripa, -ae, /., bank. 
rite, adc. fitly, duly. 
rivus, -i, m., stream. 
robur, -oris, n.,oi\\i, strengtii. 
rogo, -are, -avi, -atuin, r. «., 

roscidus, -a, -uni. adj. (ros), 

roseus, -a, -um, adj. (rosa), 

rostrum, -i, n. (i'odo), beak. 
rubesco, -oro, -ui, no stip., r. 

iitcfi)t. n. (rubeo), become 

rudo, -ere, -ivi or -ii, -Itum, 

V. n., roar. 
ruga, -ao,/., wrinklo. 
rumor, -uiis, in., roport, 

rumpo, -orc, rii])!, nii)tuiu, 

V. a., broak, lnirst. 
ruo, -oro, riii, nitiiin, r. n., 

rupes, -is, /., rock. 
rursus, adv. (re + versus) , 


rus, ruiis. w., oountry ; pbtr., 

sacer, -era^ -crum, adj., dedi- 

cated, lioly, sacrod. 
sacerdos, -Otis, m. a)ul /. 

I saccr , i^riest, priestess. 
sacrilegus, -a, -um, adj., 

(sacer + lego), that steals 

sacred tliings, sacrilegious. 
Laero, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

(sacer), dedicate, conse- 

saepio, -Ire, -psi, -ptum, r. a. 

(saepes), fence in ; shut in. 
saeta, -ae, /., bristle. 
saetiger, -ora, -erum, atlj. 

(saeta + gero), bristling. 
saevio, -ire, -ii, -Itum, r. n. 

(saevus^ am fierce, rage. 
sa3vus, -a, -um, rt(7/,savage, 

sagitta, -ao, /., arrow. 
salignus, -a, -lun, atlj. (salix), 

of willow. 
saltus, -us, 5H., glade, grove. 
salve, imper. (salveo), Ilail ! 

Greeting ! 
salvus, -a, -um, adj., safe. 
sanctus,-a, -um, «(// '^sancio), 

sauguineus, -a, -um, adj. 

!^sanguis , l)loody. 
sauguis, -inis, m., blood. 
satis, adc, enougli, suffi- 

satus, -a, -um, parl. (sero\ 

wifli abl., sprung from, son 

saucius, -a, -um, adj., 

saxum, -i, it., rock, clifT. 
scsleratus, -a, -uin, atJJ., 

(scelero), profaned, jni- 



scelus, -eiis, ';)., crime, sin, 

sceptrum, -i, w., sceptre. 
scindo, -ere, scidi, sci.ssum, 

r. «., cut, cleave. 
scopulus, -i, m., rock, crag. 
sciitum, -i, n., oblongshield. 
seco, -are, -ui, sectum, v. «., 

secretus, -a, -um, adj. (se- 

cerno), sepaiated, apart, 

secundo, -are, no2>er/. or sup., 

V. a. (secundus), favour, 

make iirosperous. 
secundus, -a, -um, adj., (se- 

quor), following, pros- 

perous : 1. 494, down 

seciiris, -is, y; (seco), axe. 
seciirus, -a, -um, adj., (se = 

sine + cura), free from care, 

ivith gen. 
sed, conj., but. 
ssdeo, -ere, sedi, sessum, 

r. «., sit ; is settled. 
sedes, -is, /. (sedeo), seat, 

seges, -etis, /., corn-field, 

segnis, -e, adj. , slow, sluggish, 

semen, -inis, n., seed. 
semper, adr., always, ever. 
senectus, -utis, /. (senex), 

old age. 
senex, senis, adj., comp. 

senior ; old ; as noiin, old 

sensus, -us, vi. (sentio), 

sententia, -ae, /. (sentio), 

opinion, resolve. 
sentio, -ire, -si, -sum, v. a., 

feel, understand, think. 

sequor, -i, seeutus sum, r. 

dcp. «., follow. 
sero, -ere, sevi, satum, r. «., 

serpens, -ntis, m. and f. 

(serpo), snake. 
sertum, -i, n., garland. 
serus, -a, -um, adj., late; too 

servo, -are, -avi, -atum, r. «., 

help, hainit. 
sese. See sui. 
setius, compi. adv. (secus), 

otherwise ; haud setius, 

no less. 
seu ( = sive), conj., whetlier, 

si, conj., if. 
sibilo, -a]-e, -avi, -atum, r. n., 

sic, adv., so, thus. 
sidus, -eris, 71., star, con- 

signo, -fire, -avi, -atum, r. «., 

signum, -i, n., mark, sign ; 

I. 138, constellations. 
silens, -ntis, p«r^. (sileo), 

silva, -ae,/., wood. 
similis, -e, adj., comp. simi- 

lior ; superl. simillimus, 

ivith gen. and dat., like. 
simul, adr., at the same 

time ; conj., as soon as. 
sirnulacrum, -i, n. (similis), 

image, likeness. 
simulo, -are, -avi, -atum, 

r. «. (similis), make like, 

copy, feign. 
sine, pre]}. ivith abl., without. 
sinister, -tra, -trum, adj., on 

the left, left. 
sino, -ere, slvi, situm, v. «., 

let alone, allow. 



sinus, -us, ni., foUl, l)osom. 
situs, -iis, 1«. (sino>, situa- 

tion ; rust, nioultliiioss. 
socar, -cri, vi., fatlior-in-law. 
socio, -firc, -fivi, -fitum, v. a. 

(soeius\ join, ally. 
socius, -a, -um, aclj., allied, 

fellow ; as noun, ally, eom- 

sol, sOlis, m., sun. 
soleo, -Ore, solitus suni, r. 

seml-dep. n., am wont, am 

solitus, -a, -um, parf. as a/IJ. 

(soleo), accustomed, usnal. 
solium, -ii, n., throne. 
sollicitus, -a, -um, aii/., 

movod, anxious. 
solum, -i, n., ground, 1. 1 1 1 = 

plate, scc notc. 
solus, -a, -um ; r/eii. sOlIus ; 

dat. sOli ; adj., alone, only. 
solvo, -erc, -vi, solutum, r. a. 

(se + luo), looso ; pay. 
somnifer, -a, -um, adj. (som- 

nus + fcro), sleep-bringing. 
somnus, -i, m. ( = sopnus), 

sonitus,-us, 5)!. (sono\ sound. 
sono, -arc, -ui, -itum, r. «., 

so:ior, -Oris, m. (sono), sound, 

soror, -Oris,/., sister. 
sors, -tis, /., lot, tixto, oraclc. 
spargo, -crc, -si, -sum, r. «., 

apatiura, -ii, ii., spacc, ring. 
specula, -ac, /. (specio), look- 

out, Avatch-towcr. 
speculor, -."iri, -atus sum, r. 

dep. a. aud n. ''spccula^, 

sjiy out. 
specus, -fis i>r -i. //(.,/. and n . 

cave. hollow. 

sperno, -erc, sprOvi, spretum, 

V. a., scorn. 
spero, -arc, -avi, -atum, r. a. 

(sjics', hopc, hfijic fiir. 
spiculum, -i, »i. diiiiin., littlc 

j)oint ; si)ear-head orpoint. 
spiraculum, i, n. (splro), 

l)roatlung-hole, vcnt. 
spiro, -aro, -avi, -atum, v.n., 

lircathc ; smcli. 
splendeo, -Orc, -ui. iio sup., 

V. II., shine. 
spolio, -firc, -avi, -fdum, v. a. 

irithahl., roh, spoil. 
spoute, abl., of one's own ac- 

spiima, -ae,/., foam. 
spiimeus, -a, -um, adj. (spu- 

ma), fiiainy, 
stabulum, -i, n. (sto), stall ; 

stagnum, -i, n., marsh, 


statuo, -crc. -ui, -utum, ?•. a. 

(sto), to stand, set 

status, -us, JH.(sto), standing, 

stellans, -ntis, part. as adj. 

(stollo\ glittering Avith 

sterno, -crc, stravi, -atum, 

V, a., sjiread out, oxtend, 

stiraulus, -i. m., goad. 
stlpes, -itis, ni., triink. stake. 
stirps, -pis. /. , stock. 
sto, stare, stoti,statum, r. n., 

strideo(o>strido), -Ore or-ero, 

-di, no sup., V. n., creak, 

whiz ; rush. 
stridor, -Oiis, m. (strideo), 

crcaking, buzzing. 
st-upefacio, -crc, -feci, -fao- 


tum, V. a. (stiipeo+ facio), 

niako stupid, stupefv. 
stupeo, -Cto, -ui, 7)0 ■'"'/'., '". "• 

aiid «., am amazoil, am 

amazod at. 
auh, 2^ rcp. ivith, under 

or beneath ; icltli aU., under. 
subdo, -ere, -didi, -ditum, 

V. a. (sub-i-do), put under, 

subeo, -Ire, -ivi or -ii, -ituni, 

V. a. and n. (sub-f-eo), go 

under, enter, approach. 
siiber, -eris, n., cork-tree. 
siibicio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum, 

V. a. (sub + iacio), throw 

under ; put beneath, 
subigo, -ere, -egi, -actum, 

r. rt. (sub-i-ago), bring un- 

der : grind ; wbet. 
subito, adv., suddenly. 
subitus, -a, -um, adj. (subeo), 

sublabor, -i, -lapsus snm. 

V. dep. n. (sub + liibor), glide 

sublimis, -e, adj., aloft, high. 
submoveo, -ere, -mOvi, -mo- 

tum, V. a. (sub + moveo), 

remove, part. 
succedo, -ere, -cessi, -ces- 

sum, V. n. (sub+ cedo), go 

under, enter, follow. 
succendo, -ere, -di, -sum, 

r. o., set on fire below. 
succingo, -ere, -xi, -ctum, 

r. a. (.sub+ eingo), gird he- 

low or up. 
sudis, -is, /., stake. 
sudor, -Oi"is, m., sweat. 
suggero, -ere, -gessi, -ges- 
tum, V. a. (sub + gero), 
Ijiing undei', put lieneatb. 
sulfureus, -a, -lun, adj. (sul- 
fur), sulpliurous. 

sui, cjen. ; acc. se or sese, yd 

pers. pron. rejlexive, self. 
sum.osso, fui, vo mip.,r.n., am. 
summus,-a, -um, adj. ; supcrl. 

«f superus, highest ; sum- 

mum, as noun, top. 
siimo,-ere, -mpsi, -ptum, r.rt., 

super, prep. u-ith acc. , or aht. , 

above, OA'er ; about ; be- 

sides ; as adv., in addition. 
superbus,-a, -um,afZj.,proud, 

superi, -Orum, j^hir. adj. as 

noun (superus), the gods 

superus, -a,-um, aclj. (super), 

uppor, aliove. 
supplicium, -ii, n., punish- 

suppono, -ci-e, -posui, -posi- 

tum, V. a. (sub+ pOno , put 

beneath ; substitute. 
supra, prep. u-ith acc, above ; 

adv., above. 
sQpremus, -a , -um , adj. , siiperl. 

o/suporus, liighest, last. 
surgo, -ere, surrexi, surrec- 

tum, V. n., rise. 
sias, suis, m. andf., pig. 
suspendo, -ore, -di, -sum, 

r. a. (sub + pendo),hang up. 
sustineo. -ere, -ui, -tentum, 

r. rt. (sub + teneo), hokl up, 

suus, -a, -um, jkiss. adj. (sui), 

tacitus, -a, -um, adj. (taceo), 

tactus, -i\s,»w. (tango), touch. 
taeda, -ae, /., piteh pine ; 

torcli ; 1. 388 = hiarriage. 
taenia, -ac, /., fillet, riltbon ; 

end of head band. 



tulis, -o, odi., of sudi kind. 
lam, uflr., so. 
tandem, adr., nt longtli. 
tango, -010, tctigi, lactnm, 

7-. «., touch. 
tantus, -a. -um, adj., so great. 
tapete, -is, nbl. plur. -is, n., 

tectum, -i, n. (togo), covoring, 

rodf, iiouso. 
tegmeu, -inis, n. (togo),covor- 

ing ; \. 666 = skin. 
tego, -orc, texi, tectum, r. n., 

cover, guai-cl. 
tegumen = tcgmcn. 
tela, -ao,/. , wob, warp. 
tellus,-uris, /., oarth ; 1. 137, 

tlic god(h>ss Eartli. 
telum, -i, 11., dart, woapon, 
temno, -ere, -mpsi, -mptum, 

?•. rt., despise. 
tempestas, -atis,/. (tempus), 

timo, wonthor, storm. 
templum, -i, ))., spaco markod 

out for obsorvation in 

.lugury, toniple. 
tempus, -oris, n., timo ; con- 

dition of things ; ])Iu):, 

tomplos of tho lioad. 
tendo, -ero, totondi. tonsum, 

V. a. and n., strotch ; kooji 

on, advanee. 
tenebrae, -arum. /. jihir.. 

teneo, -C-re, -ui, tontum, r. a , 

tener, -cra, -crum, adj., ton- 

dor, young. 
tenuis, -e, adj., fino, thin. 
ter, 7U(m. adr., thrice. 
teres, -otis, adj. (tcro), 

i-oundod, smooth. 
tergeo [of torgo), -6re or -oro, 

-si. -sum, r. a., wi]>o. 
tergura, -i, ;i., liack. 

terra, -ac, /. (torroo\ land, 

terribilis, -o, adj. (tcrreo\ 

terror,-oris, )»?., tori'or,drcad. 
tessera, -ae, /, squaro ; dio ; 

tahlot on wliich the watch- 

word was writtcn ; watch- 

testor, -ari, -atus sum, r. dep. 

a. (testis), })oar witness, 

invoke as witnoss. 
thalamus, -i, m., hedroom ; 

nuptial hed. 
thorax, -acis, m., brcast- 

plate, co)-slet. 
thyrsus, -i. 9«., ivy-twined 

wand carriod hy tho Bac- 

tiaras, -ae, }u.,turl)an, tiara. 
tinguo,-ero, -n.\i, -ctuni,r. «., 

toUo, -ero, sustuli. sublatuiii, 

r. a., raiso, reinovc. 
tonsa, -ao, /., oar. 
torqueo, -ore, torsi, tortum. 

r. a., twist. 
torquis or -es, -is, m. and /. 

',torqueo\ necklace. 
torrens, -ntis, m., torrent. 
torreo, -ore, -ui, tostum. r. n., 

torris, -is, »H.(torreo\hrand ; 

tortilis, -e, adj. (torquoo), 

torus, -i,«i.( = storus, sterno), 

couch, bed. 
torvus, -a, -uin, adj., storn, 

tot, iuutK adj. indcdinahJe. so 

totiens, mim. adr., so niany 

timos, so often. 



lotus, -;i, -um, ailj. ; gen. to- 

tius ; dat. toti, vvhole. 
trabea, -;ie,/. trabs", robe of 


traho, -ere, -xi, -ctum, v. a., 

draw, dmg ; delay. 
trans, iirep. xcith acc, :\cross, 

over, Ijeyond. 
transformo, -;ire, -avi, -;itum, 

v.a. (^trans + fornio),change 

in shape, transform. 
transseribo,-ere, -psi, -ptum, 

V. a. (trans-i- scribo), make 

over, transfer. 
tremor, -Oris, m. (tremo), 


sliakiiig, trembling. 
trepidus, -a, -um, adj.. rest- 

less, anxious, ahinned. 
tres, tri:i, num. adj., three. 
tribus, -us,/., tribe. 
trilix, -Icis, adj. (tres-i-li- 

cium\ ■\vith three sets of 

leashes, triple-twilled. 
triplex, -icis, adj. [tv&s + 

plico , thrcefold, triple. 
tristis, -e, adj., sad. 
tii, jwts. prijii., thou. 
tuba, -ae, /., trumpet. 
tueor, -eri, tuitus sum, c. 

d(-p. a., behold, protect. 
tura, adv., then. 
tumeo, -ere, -ui, no siip., v. n., 

tumulus, -i, )«., mound, 

turba, -ae,/., crowd. 
turbo, -inis, m., whirlwind ; 

turbo, -;'irc, -;"ivi, -;"ituni, v. a., 

disturl», confuse. 
turriger, -era, -erum, aclj. 

(turris + gero), tovver-bear- 


turris, -is,/., tower. 

tiitor, -ari, -atus sum, v. dep. 

«., giiard. 
tvitus, -a, -um, adj. (tueor), 

tuus, -a, -um, possess. adj., 

tyrannus, -i, m., king, 


iiber, -eris, n., udder ; fruit- 

uber, -eris, adj , rich, fruit- 

ubi, adv. of place, where ; (/ 

time, when. 
udus, -a, -um, adj., wet. 
ultimus, -a, -um, superl. adj. 

(ultra I, last. 
ultro, adr., beyond what is 

denianded ; voluntanly. 
ululatus, -us, m. (ululo), 

ululo, -ru-e, -;ivi, -:itum, v. n., 

howl, shriek. 
umbo, -Onis, m., boss of a 

shield ; shield. 
umbra, -;xe, /, shadow. 
iimens, -ni'is,2Mrt.,v,-et, drip- 

iinanimus, -a, -um,«rf/ (linus 

+ animus\ of one mind. 
unda, -ae,/., wave. 
unde, adv., whence. 
undique, adv. (undc-i- que), 

from or on all sides. 
undo, -are, -:ivi, -atum, v. n. 

(unda)', surge, boil. 
iinus, -a, -um, adj. ; gen. 

fintus ; daf. iini, one. 
urbs, -is, /., town. 
urgueo, -ere, ursi, no sup., 

V. «., press on, lu-ge. 
urna, -ae, /., urn. 


uro, -vvv, iis.^i, ustum, r. «., 

ursus, -i, 1)1., bcar. 
usquam, adr., aiiywhert'. 
usque, adv., all the wny, 

right on, ever. 
ut, adi: and conj., as, wlion, 

Jiow, so that, iii order that. 
uterque, utra^iiio, utrunKiuo, 

(jtn. utrius(iuo ; dat. utrl- 

que ; adj. und pron., each 

of two, botli. 
uterus, -i, di., holly, wonib. 
utrimque, adv., on both side«. 

vacuus, -a, -um, adj, (vaco), 

vado, -ere, no \Kif. or tiitj)., 

V. 71., gO. 

vadosus, •;!, -um, adj. (va- 

duiHi, lull of shallows. 
vadum, -i, /*., sliallow. 
valeo, -Orc, -ui, -itum, v. n., 

am woll or sti-ong ; avail. 
vallis, -is, /., vall<'y. 
vapor, -Oris, m., vaj^our, 

varius, -a,-um, adj., various, 

vastus, -a, -um, adj., eiiipty, 

vast, liugc. 
vates, -is, m., secr, jxjot. 
ve, conj. enditic, or. 
vectis, -is, vi. (veho), bar, 

veho, -erc, vc.\i, vectum, v. a., 

Ijcar, carry. 
vel, conj., or. 
vellus, -cris, n., fleece. 
velo, -are, -avi, -atum, r. «., 

covcr, vcil. 
velum, -i, n., sail. 
velut, vclutl, adv., as. 
Venatus, -us, m. (vcnor , 


venenum, -i, n., poison. 
veneror, -ari, -atus suin, v. 

dep. a., reverence, worship. 
venio, -Ire, veni, ventum, 

V. n., come. 
venor, -ari, -atussum, v. dep. 

a. and n., liunt. 
ventus, -i, vi., wind. 
verber, -eris, ti., whip, hish. 
verbum, -i, »t., Avord. 
vero, adv. (verus), truly, iii- 

dced, but. 
verso, -are, -avi, -atum, r. 

/req. a. (verto), turu often, 

overturn ; disturl». 
vertex, -icis,?». (verto), head, 

top ; whirlpooh 
verto, -erc, -ti, -sum, v. a., 

turn,change,troubIe, over- 

verii, -us, n., si^it ; javeliii. 
verus, -a, -uni, adj., truc ; 

vcrum, 0.S noun, truth. 
vester, -tra, -truni, 2^o^scss. 

adj. , y. )ur. 
vestibulum,-i, n., fore-court, 

vestigium, -ii, /(. (vcstigo), 

footprint ; sole of foot. 
vestigo, -are, -avi, -atuni, 

V. «., Irace, cxplorc. 
vestis, -is, /., drcss, garb. 
vetus, -cris, udj., old. 
via, -ac,/., way, road. 
vicissim, adv., on the otlicr 

liand, in turn. 
victor, -oris, ?/,-. (vinco), con- 

victrix, -icis, /. (vinco), she 

that conqucrs ; fi.s adj., 

video, -crc, vidi,vlsum, r.a., 

sec ; vidcor, sccni. 
vinclum (or vinculum\ -i, n. 

(vincio), boiid, chaiii. 


vinco, -ere, vici, victuni, 

V. a., conquer. 
vinum, -i, »., wine. 
violo, -are, -avi, -atum, v. a. 

vis , injure, outrage. 
vipereus,-a,-um,a</;.(vipera , 

of a viper. 
vir, -i, m., man, hero. 
virga, -ae, /., twig. 
virgeus, -a, -um, adj. (virga), 

of twigs. 
virgo, -inis,/., maiden. 
virgultum, -i, n. (virga), 

copso, thicket. 
viridans, -utis, part. (virido), 

viridis, -e, adj. (vireo),green. 
virilis, -e, adj. (vir), manly. 
virttis, -utis, /. ,vir), valour, 

vis, acc. vim, abl. vI,/.,force, 

violencc ; plur. vires, -ium, 

-ibus, strength. 
viscera, -uin, n. (viscus), in- 

ward parts, bowels. 
visus, -fis. m. (video), .sight. 
vita, -ae,/., life. 
vitisator, -oris, m. (vitis + 

sero), vine-planter. 
vitreus,-a, -um,«f/;. 'vitrum), 

vitta, -ao,/., fillet. 

vivo, -oro, vixi, victum, r. /;. 

vix, rtrfc, scarcely, hardly. 
vociferor, -ari, -atus suni 

r. dep. n. (vox + fero), cry 

voco, -are, -avi, -atum, r. a 

vox), eall, name. 
volito, -are, -avi, -atum, r. 
freq. n. (volo^, fly to and 

fro, fiit. 
volo, -are, -avi, -atum, r. n 


volo, velle, volui, no sup., r. a 

and n., wish. 
volCibilis, -e, adj. (volvo) 

turncd, round, spinning. 
voliicris, -is, /. (volucer) 

voluntas, -atis,/., wish, will 
volvo, -ere, -vi, voliitum,r. a. 

roll ; ponder. 
v6mer,-oris, m., ])loughshare 

vorago, -inis, /., gulf, chasni 
vos, plxr. c/tu. 
votum, -i, n. (voveo), vow 

vox, vGcis, /., voice, word. 
vulnus, -eris, 7i., wound. 
vultus, -us, m., expression, 




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